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Figure 5 | Arthritis Research & Therapy

Figure 5

From: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor enhances osteoclastogenesis through upregulation of RANKL expression from fibroblast-like synoviocytes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

Figure 5

Human OC differentiation induced by MIF. (a) Schematics for OC differentiation after isolated human PBMC were cultured with 25 ng/mL of M-CSF and 100 ng/mL of rhRANKL or 0.1, 1, 5, 25 ng/mL of rhMIF. TRAP-positive multinucleated cells were counted. Results are presented as the mean and standard deviation (SD) of four separate experiments. (b) The expression of TRAP, RANK, cathepsin K, CTR, MMP-9 by the differentiated OCs was measured using quantitative real-time PCR. Data represent the mean and SD of four separate experiments. (c) Schematics for OC differentiation after isolated human monocytes were cultured with 25 ng/mL M-CSF and 5 ng/mL rhMIF with 20 μM LY294002, 10 μM SB203580, 50 μM AG490, 10 μM parthenolide, or 10 μM curcurmin. TRAP-positive multinucleated cells were counted. Data represent the mean and SD of four separate experiments. (d) The expression of TRAP, RANK, cathepsin K, CTR, MMP-9 by the differentiated OCs that were cultured with rhMIF was measured using quantitative real-time PCR. *P < 0.05 and **P < 0.005. (e) Differentiation into TRAP-positive multinucleated cells was decreased after blocking of IL-1β. **P < 0.005 versus M-CSF and #P < 0.05 versus MIF 5ng/ml + M-CSF. Data represent the mean and SD of four separate experiments. CTR, calcitonin receptor; MIF, macrophage migration inhibitory factor; MMP, matrix metalloproteinases; OC, osteoclast; PBMC, peripheral blood mononuclear cell; RA, rheumatoid arthritis; RANKL, Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand; TRAP, Tartrate resistant acid phosphatase.

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