Effect of glucosamine on the percentage of RANKL positive synovial and peripheral CD3 T cells. Synovial cells and PBMCs were obtained at Day 30 from healthy (n = 5) mice, CIOA mice treated with PBS (CIOA; n = 5) and CIOA mice treated with glucosamine hydrochloride (CIOA + Glu1, n = 5). The cells were stained with PE-labeled antibody against CD3 and with biotinylated antibody against RANKL followed by avidin-FITC staining and were subjected to flow cytometry (a) Representative data showing the inhibitory effect of glucosamine on the number of RANKL positive synovial CD3 T cells, (b) Glucosamine suppressed the RANKL expression of synovial CD3 T cells. Data represent the mean of positive cells ± SD from two independent experiments involving five mice/group; Student's t-test; ***P < 0.001, (c) Representative data showing increased percentage of RANKL positive peripheral CD3 T cells in glucosamine-treated CIOA mice, (d) Glucosamine increased the RANKL expression of peripheral CD3 T cells. Data represent the mean of positive cells ± SD from two independent experiments involving five mice/group; Student's t-test; **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001.