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Table 1 Characteristics of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and control participantsa

From: Soluble interleukin-18 receptor complex is a novel biomarker in rheumatoid arthritis

Participant characteristics Control (n= 67) RA (n= 145) AOSD (n= 6) OA (n= 31) SLE (n= 39)
Mean age, yr (± SEM) 60.7 ± 2.1 56.7 ± 1.2 54.3 ± 9.9 76.3 ± 1.5b 38.8 ± 2.1b
Sex, n      
   Male 40 24b 1b 6b 6b
   Female 27 121 5 25 33
Smoking status, n      
   Nonsmoker 37 32 1 0 0
   Smoker 30 12 0 0 0
   Unknown 0 101 5 31 39
Joint damagec, n      
   I ND 42 ND ND ND
   II ND 47 ND ND ND
   III ND 20 ND ND ND
   IV ND 36 ND ND ND
Functional classificationd, n      
   I ND 24 ND ND ND
   II ND 92 ND ND ND
   III ND 29 ND ND ND
   IV ND 0 ND ND ND
Mean DAS28 (CRP) (± SEM) ND 4.3 ± 0.1 ND ND ND
Mean DAS28 (ESR) (± SEM) ND 4.9 ± 0.1 ND ND ND
Mean HAQ (± SEM) ND 5.8 ± 0.7 ND ND ND
Mean WBC (cell count/μL) (± SEM) ND 7,307.3 ± 211.0 8,950.0 ± 533.1 5,134.7 ± 304.8 ND
Mean CRP level, mg/dL (± SEM) ND 2.27 ± 0.22 2.15 ± 1.14 0.08 ± 0.02 ND
Mean ESR, mm/hour (± SEM) ND 45.0 ± 2.7 40.3 ± 18.6 ND ND
RF-positived, n (%) 2/64 (3.1%) 106/145 (73.1%) 0/6 (0%) 2/30 (6.7%) 2/39 (5.1%)
   Mean RF, U/mL (± SEM) 3.7 ± 1.3 158.0 ± 20.9 b 4.8 ± 2.7 5.4 ± 1.3b 3.8 ± 1.0
CCP-positivee, n (%) 0/59 (0%) 121/145 (83.4%) 1/6 (16.7%) 0/30 (0%) 3/39 (7.7%)
   Mean CCP, U/mL (± SEM)   0.3 ± 0.1 261.5 ± 27.2b 22.5 ± 22.3 0.5 ± 0.1b
PSL, n (%) ND 89/145 (61.4%) ND ND ND
   Mean dose, mg/day (± SEM) ND 5.91 ± 0.32 ND ND ND
MTX, n (%) ND 58/145 (40.0%) ND ND ND
   Mean dose, mg/week (± SEM) ND 6.87 ± 0.34 ND ND ND
DMARDsf, n (%) ND 117/145 (80.7%) ND ND ND
  1. aRA = rheumatoid arthritis; AOSD = adult-onset Still's disease; OA = osteoarthritis; SLE = systemic lupus erythematosus; DAS28 = 28-joint Disease Activity Score; HAQ = Health Assessment Questionnaire; WBC = white blood cell; CRP = C-reactive protein; ESR = erythrocyte sedimentation rate; RF = rheumatoid factor; CCP = anticyclic citrullinated peptide antibody; PSL = prednisolone; MTX = methotrexate; DMARDs = disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs; bP < 0.05 vs. healthy controls; cSteinbrocker global score (I to IV) [21]; cSteinbrocker functional classification was used, ranging from class I, "complete functional capacity to carry out all usual duties without handicaps," to class IV, "largely or wholly incapacitated with (the person) bedridden or confined to wheelchair" [21]; dcutoff serum concentration of the immunoglobulin M rheumatoid factor (RF) is 20 units/mL; ecutoff serum concentration of the anti-CCP antibody is 4.5 U/mL; fnone of RA patients were treated with tumor necrosis factor α inhibitor at this point.