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Table 1 Summary of microRNAs, their targets, expression, and effects on osteoblast differentiation

From: MicroRNA biogenesis and regulation of bone remodeling

miRNA Target gene(s) Endogenous miRNA expression miRNA over-expression miRNA inhibition Reference
125b NR Decreased in BMP4-induced osteoblastic differentiation of ST2 cells Inhibits ALP activity Increases ALP activity [58]
133 Runx2 Decreased in BMP2-induced osteoblast differentiation of C2C12 cells Decreases ALP and osteocalcin mRNA NR [49]
135 Smad5     
141, 200a Dlx5 Repressed by BMP in MC3T3-E1 cells Inhibits ALP activity Increases ALP activity [54]
199a, 346 LIF Increased during osteoblast differentiation of hMSCs NR NR [46]
204 Runx2 Increased in C3H10T1/2 cells and hMSCs during adipogenesis Enhances adipogenesis (increases oil red O staining, and AP2, adipsin, and PPARγ mRNA); inhibits osteoblastogenesis (decreases ALP activity, and ALP, osteopontin, and osteocalcin mRNA) Enhances osteoblastogenesis (increases ALP activity, and ALP, osteopontin, and osteocalcin mRNA); inhibits adipogenesis (decreases oil red O staining, and AP2, adipsin, and PPARγ mRNA) [61]
206 Connexin 43 Decreased in BMP2-induced osteoblastic differentiation of C2C12 cells; deceased during osteoblastic differentiation of primary mouse osteoblasts Causes osteopenia in vivo; decreases osteocalcin and Runx2 mRNA, and ALP activity; increases myogenic markers (MyoD, Myf5) Increases ALP activity [52]
208 Ets1 Repressed by BMP treatment in MC3T3-E1 cells Decreases ALP activity, Alizarin red staining, and osteopontin protein No effect [56]
210 AcvR1b Increased in BMP4-induced osteoblastic differentiation of ST2 cells Increases ALP, osteocalcin, and osterix mRNA, and ALP activity Decreases osteocalcin mRNA [59]
23a/27a/24-2 Runx2, SATB2 Increased during osteoblastic differentiation of rat primary osteoblasts Decreases ALP activity and mRNA, vonKossa staining, Runx2, osterix, and osteocalcin mRNA NR [62]
26a SMAD1 Increased during terminal osteoblastic differentiation in hADSCs NR Increases ALP, osteopontin, and osteocalcin mRNA [63]
27 APC Increased during osteoblastic differentiation of hFOB 1.19 cells Increases ALP and osteocalcin mRNA; augments Wnt signaling Decreases ALP and osteocalcin mRNA [73]
2861 HDAC5 Increased in BMP2-induced osteoblastic differentiation of ST2 cells; enriched in human bone Augments BMP-induced increase in osteocalcin mRNA Decreases bone volume and BFR in vivo; patients homozygous for miR-2861 mutation have very low bone mass [74]
29a, 29c COL1A1, COL3A1, Osteonectin/SPARC, Kremen2, Dkk1, Sfrp2 Increased during osteoblastic differentiation in MC3T3-E1 cells, primary osteoblasts (human and mouse), and hFOB1.19 cells Increases osteocalcin mRNA; potentiates Wnt signaling Inhibits ALP and osteocalcin mRNA, and ALP activity; blunts Wnt signaling [60, 68, 72]
29b COL1A1, HDAC4, DUSP2, TGFβ3, AcvR2a, CTNNBIP1 Increased during osteoblastic differentiation in MC3T3-E1 cells Increases ALP mRNA and ALP activity NR [70]
3960 Hoxa2 Increased in response to BMP-2 in mouse primary osteoblasts Increases ALP, osteocalcin, and Runx2 mRNA Decreases ALP, osteocalcin, and Runx2 mRNA [76]
  1. ALP, alkaline phosphatase; BFR, bone formation rate; BMP, bone morphogenetic protein; hADSC, human adipocyte derived stem cell; hMSC, human mesenchymal stem cell; miRNA, microRNA; NR, not reported; PPAR, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor.