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Table 1 The signature of immunosenescence

From: Giant cell arteritis: immune and vascular aging as disease risk factors

Adaptive immunity
   Decline of naïve T cells
   Enrichment of memory/effector T cells
   Accumulation of CD8+CD28- T cells
   Less pronounced accumulation of CD4+CD28- T cells
   Contraction of diversity in the immune repertoire
Innate immunity
   Bias of the hematopoietic stem cell towards the myeloid lineage
   Maintained expression of pattern recognition receptors (for example, TLR)
   Dendritic cell trafficking impaired
   Decreased dendritic cell response to TLR stimulation
Environmental stressors
   Increased infectious load
   Reactivation of persistent infections
  1. TLR, Toll-like receptor.