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Table 2 Molecules involved in premature immune aging

From: Giant cell arteritis: immune and vascular aging as disease risk factors

Telomerase
   Insufficient repair of telomeric ends in old T cells
Ataxia telangiectasia mutated
   Blunted repair of DNA double-strand breaks in old T cells
DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs)
   Excessive activation of the DNA repair machinery with triggering of cellular stress pathways in old T cells
Reactive oxygen species
   Impaired cellular detoxification of reactive oxygen species, accumulation of oxidized lipids and proteins, modification of signaling proteins and membranes