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Table 1 Results of histopathological scores of synovium for sections in arthritic ankle joint sampled from three treatment groups

From: Hyaluronan modulates accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and matrix metalloproteinase-3 in the synovium of rat adjuvant-induced arthritis model

Dose Group Intimal hyperplasia Subintimal fibrosis Lymphocytic infiltration Vascularity Aggregate score
1D HA 2.45 ± 0.11 2.60 ± 0.11 1.50 ± 0.11a, b 2.05 ± 0.11 7.80 ± 0.26a, b
  SA 2.60 ± 0.11 2.60 ± 0.11 2.50 ± 0.11 2.10 ± 0.12 9.10 ± 0.31
  No-tr 2.65 ± 0.11 2.65 ± 0.10 2.95 ± 0.05 2.20 ± 0.12 9.75 ± 0.24
  cP value among groups P > 0.05 P > 0.05 P <0.001 P > 0.05 P <0.001
3D HA 2.50 ± 0.11 2.70 ± 0.11 1.40 ± 0.13a, b 2.20 ± 0.09 8.05 ± 0.31a, b
  SA 2.80 ± 0.09 2.70 ± 0.10 2.55 ± 0.11 2.15 ± 0.11 9.55 ± 0.28
  No-tr 2.80 ± 0.09 2.70 ± 0.11 2.85 ± 0.08 2.20 ± 0.14 9.95 ± 0.32
  cP value among groups P > 0.05 P > 0.05 P <0.001 P > 0.05 P <0.001
3D6d HA 2.50 ± 0.11 2.50 ± 0.11 1.40 ± 0.11a, b 2.15 ± 0.11 7.85 ± 0.25a, b
  SA 2.70 ± 0.11 2.60 ± 0.10 2.77 ± 0.10 2.20 ± 0.14 9.6 ± 0.36
  No-tr 2.70 ± 0.11 2.70 ± 0.11 2.85 ± 0.08 2.40 ± 0.11 10.05 ± 0.33
  1. Sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Values are presented as mean ± standard error of the mean. aP < 0.05, showed statistically significant differences between hyaluronan (HA) and saline (SA) groups; bP < 0.05, showed statistically significant differences between HA and 'no treatment' (No-tr) groups; Mann-Whitney U ranked tests were used for between-group comparisons. cTested with Kruskal-Wallis test. 1D, one dose; 3D, three doses; 3D6d, follow-up at the 6th day after three doses.