Treatment with dexamethasone alone or in combination with raloxifene reduces arthritis and protects against joint destruction. Female sham-operated (n = 10) or ovariectomy (OVX) mice treated with vehicle (Veh; n = 9), raloxifene (Ral; n = 10), dexamethasone (Dex; n = 9), or a combination of both Dex and Ral (n = 9) were used in order to evaluate the effects of treatment on arthritis and bone mineral density (BMD). Treatment was administered five days per week, starting after the first appearance of arthritis (day 22), and continued until the termination of the experiment (day 49). (a) Frequency and (b) severity were evaluated every two to three days. Severity is expressed as the mean ± standard deviation in each group. (c) Histologic destruction scores of paw sections. Scatter plots show the scores of individual mice, and bars show the median in each group. (d) Representative images of paw tissue sections, revealing the effects of treatment on histologic features in each group. The non-parametric Kruskall-Wallis test with post hoc comparison was used for statistical evaluation of all parameters, *P<0.05, **P<0.01, ***P<0.001.