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Table 1 Characteristics of human subjects used in this study

From: Defective response of CD4+T cells to retinoic acid and TGFβ in systemic lupus erythematosus

  Patients (142) Controls (83)
Median age (range) 35 (20 to 74) 32 (19 to 61)
  number percentage number percentage
Females 129 91% 55 66%
Males 13 9% 28 34%
Caucasians 62 43% 49 60%
African Americans 57 40% 18 22%
Hispanics 20 14% 2 2%
Asians 1 1% 8 10%
Mixed 4 3% 4 5%
PBX1-a 30 33% 28 56%
PBX1-a/d 25 27% 14 28%
PBX1-d 37 40% 8 !6%
Medications     
Steroids 62 42%   
No steroid 85 58%   
Mycophenolate mofetil 69 47%   
Methotrexate 7 5%   
Azathioprine 17 12%   
Cyclophosphamide 2 1%   
Abatacept 4 3%   
No immunosuppressive 47 32%   
Untreated 30 21%   
Disease activity     
Inactive 58 48%   
Active non-renal 14 12%   
Active renal 49 40%