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Table 2 Changes in levels of Th17-cells and Th17-related cytokines in RA patients with different therapeutic responses

From: Increasing levels of circulating Th17 cells and interleukin-17 in rheumatoid arthritis patients with an inadequate response to anti-TNF-α therapy

  Moderate-good responders (n= 36) Non-responders (n= 12)
Th17 cells (%)   
   Before Rx. 1.13 ± 0.16 2.94 ± 0.77#
   After Rx. 0.79 ± 0.11*** 4.23 ± 0.80*
IL-17 level (pg/ml)   
   Before Rx 43.1 ± 7.0 92.1 ± 22.2#
   After Rx 27.8 ± 3.8*** 148.6 ± 31.5*
IL-6 level (pg/ml)   
   Before Rx 282.9 ± 37.1 453.7 ± 120.9
   After Rx 171.7 ± 22.2* 471.6 ± 124.0
IL-21 level (pg/ml)   
   Before Rx 1147.0 ± 216.3 863.5 ± 133.9
   After Rx 769.8 ± 104.7** 942.9 ± 140.4
IL-23 level (pg/ml)   
   Before Rx 166.1 ± 35.1 158.4 ± 67.6
   After Rx 83.3 ± 19.7*** 161.3 ± 63.3
TNF-α level (pg/ml)   
   Before Rx 22.0 ± 2.4 29.2 ± 7.2
   After Rx 11.0 ± 1.3*** 15.2 ± 3.9**
RF titer (IU/ml)   
   Before Rx 116.6 ± 32.7 368.7 ± 257.9
   After Rx 101.2 ± 28.2 440.0 ± 324.4
Anti-CCP titer (IU/ml)   
   Before Rx 58.7 ± 9.6 72.4 ± 22.0
   After Rx 51.8 ± 8.7** 68.8 ± 20.3
  1. Data are presented as mean ± SEM; RA, rheumatoid arthritis. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.005, ***P < 0.001, versus before anti-TNF-α treatment in each group
  2. #P < 0.01, versus moderate-good responders.
  3. Anti-CCP, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies; IL, interleukin; RF, rheumatoid factor; Rx, treatment; Th17, type 17 helper T cell; TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor-α.