Skip to main content

Table 2 Univariate comparison of patients with and without CAD used in TC and BP models

From: Importance of cumulative exposure to elevated cholesterol and blood pressure in development of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease in systemic lupus erythematosus: a prospective proof-of-concept cohort study

  BP models TC models
  CAD (n = 94) No CAD (n = 897)   CAD (n = 86) No CAD (n = 870)  
  n(%) or mean ± SD n(%) or mean ± SD P n(%) or mean ± SD n(%) or mean ± SD P
Female 72 (83.7%) 777 (89.3%) 0.12 78 (83.0%) 801 (89.3%) 0.07
Menopausea at study start 32 (44.4%) 184 (23.7%) 0.0001 33 (42.3%) 189 (23.6%) 0.0003
Race       
Caucasian 75 (87.2%) 574 (68.6%) 0.004 81 (86.2%) 593 (68.7%) 0.005
Black 3 (3.5%) 96 (11.5%)   4 (4.3%) 97 (11.2%)  
Asian 4 (4.7%) 94 (11.2.%)   4 (4.3%) 97 (11.2%)  
Other 4 (4.7%) 73 (8.7%)   5 (5.3%) 76 (8.8%)  
Disease durationb       
   At first visit 4.08 ± 5.71 4.01 ± 5.87 0.92 4.24 ± 5.72 3.94 ± 5.80 0.63
   At study start 6.99 ± 7.84 6.54 ± 8.17 0.62 5.95 ± 7.23 6.13 ± 8.00 0.83
SLEDAI-2Kc       
   At first visit 12.34 ± 8.67 9.49 ± 7.63 0.001 12.16 ± 8.63 9.60 ± 7.65 0.002
   At study start 9.59 ± 7.99 8.28 ± 7.26 0.11 11.36 ± 8.86 9.02 ± 7.50 0.02
Disease manifestationsd
ever from diagnosis to first visit
      
Musculoskeletal 42 (44.7%) 365 (40.7%) 0.45 44 (51.2%) 363 (41.7%) 0.09
Cutaneous 69 (73.4%) 504 (56.2%) 0.001 65 (75.6%) 507 (58.3%) 0.002
Renal 46 (48.9%) 364 (40.6%) 0.12 47 (54.7%) 370 (42.5%) 0.03
Nervous system 32 (34.0%) 180 (20.1%) 0.002 32 (37.2%) 189 (21.7%) 0.001
Hematologic 13 (13.8%) 110 (12.3%) 0.66 14 (16.3%) 117 (13.5%) 0.47
Vasculitis 19 (20.2%) 126 (14.1%) 0.11 19 (22.1%) 133 (15.3%) 0.10
Immunologic 58 (61.7%) 640 (71.4%) 0.05 62 (72.1%) 637 (73.2%) 0.82
Serosal 13 (13.8%) 77 (8.6%) 0.09 11 (12.8%) 74 (8.5%) 0.18
Fever 16 (17.0%) 141 (15.7%) 0.74 18 (20.9%) 138 (15.9%) 0.23
Disease manifestationse ever during follow-up       
Musculoskeletal 70 (74.5%) 508 (56.6%) 0.0008 67 (77.9%) 476 (54.7%) < 0.0001
Cutaneous 82 (87.2%) 643 (71.7%) 0.001 73 (84.9%) 615 (70.7%) 0.005
Renal 72 (76.6%) 581 (64.8%) 0.02 62 (72.1%) 547 (62.9%) 0.09
Nervous system 58 (61.7%) 304 (33.9%) < 0.0001 53 (61.6%) 284 (32.6%) < 0.0001
Hematologic 25 (26.6%) 229 (25.5%) 0.82 22 (25.6%) 214 (24.6%) 0.84
Vasculitis 42 (44.7%) 207 (23.1%) < 0.0001 36 (41.9%) 189 (21.7%) < 0.0001
Immunologic 82 (87.2%) 769 (85.7%) 0.69 76 (88.4%) 741 (85.2%) 0.42
Serosal 22 (23.4%) 112 (12.5%) 0.003 19 (22.1%) 94 (10.8%) 0.002
Fever 42 (44.7%) 231 (25.8%) < 0.0001 40 (46.5%) 200 (23.0%) < 0.0001
Chronic renal insufficiency everf 5 (5.3%) 64 (7.1%) 0.51 4 (4.7%) 60 (6.9%) 0.43
Anti-phospholipid antibodiesg       
Ever from first clinic visit to last visit 69 (75.8%) 546 (61.1%) 0.006 66 (76.7%) 527 (60.8%) 0.004
Ever in the study period 66 (72.5%) 491 (55.0%) 0.001 61 (70.9%) 459 (53.0%) 0.001
Corticosteroids       
At study start 66 (76.7%) 559 (68.5%) 0.02 66 (70.2%) 557 (62.2%) 0.13
Ever during follow-up 81 (94.2%) 676 (77.7%) 0.0003 88 (93.6%) 706 (78.7%) 0.0006
Cumulative steroid dose (g)       
From first clinic visit to last visit 42.3 ± 34.4 31.7 ± 34.7 0.006 43.5 ± 34.6 31.9 ± 35.1 0.005
In the study period 30.3 ± 25.8 20.5 ± 23.1 0.0002 28.8 ± 25.1 19.7 ± 21.9 0.0005
Antimalarialsg       
At study start 29 (33.7%) 356 (41.1%) 0.18 31 (33.0%) 349 (39.0%) 0.25
Ever during follow-up 51 (59.3%) 622 (71.5%) 0.02 58 (61.7%) 639 (71.2%) 0.05
Immunosuppressivesh       
At study start 16 (18.6%) 217 (25.1%) 0.18 14 (15.1%) 221 (24.8%) 0.04
Ever during follow-up 46 (53.5%) 454 (52.2%) 0.82 51 (54.3%) 471 (52.5%) 0.75
Hypertensioni       
At study start 26 (31.0%) 123 (14.4%) < 0.0001 26 (27.7%) 131 (14.6%) 0.001
Ever during follow-up 71 (82.6%) 380 (43.7%) < 0.0001 77 (81.9%) 403 (44.9%) < 0.0001
Hypercholesterolemiaj       
At study start 26 (31.0%) 350 (40.2%) < 0.0001 39 (65.0%) 305 (39.9%) 0.0001
Ever during follow-up 79 (91.9%) 597 (68.6%) < 0.0001 81 (91.0%) 614 (69.1%) < 0.0001
Diabetes mellitusk       
At study start 5 (6.0%) 29 (3.4%) 0.22 4 (4.4%) 27 (3.1%) 0.52
Ever during follow-up 13 (15.1%) 58 (6.7%) 0.005 13 (13.8%) 61 (6.8%) 0.01
Smokerl       
At study start 20 (23.8%) 162 (19.0%) 0.28 23 (25.0%) 166 (18.8%) 0.15
Ever during follow-up 27 (31.4%) 220 (25.4%) 0.22 30 (31.9%) 229 (25.6%) 0.18
Antihypertensivesm       
Ever up to study start 14/37 (37.8%) 166/642 (25.9%) 0.11 16/39 (41.0%) 169/654 (25.8%) 0.04
Ever during follow-up 69/76 (90.8%) 355/487 (72.9%) 0.0008 71/83 (85.5%) 361/506 (71.3%) 0.007
Lipid-lowering medicationsn       
Ever up to study start 1/10 (10.0%) 26/427 (6.1%) 0.48 1/11 (9.1%) 27/430 (6.3%) 0.52
Ever during follow-up 47/76 (61.8%) 144/543 (26.5%) < 0.0001 48/70 (68.6%) 145/528 (27.5%) < 0.0001
TC level at study starto 5.85 ± 1.62 5.19 ± 1.56 0.0002    
Mean of first two TC levelso 5.91 ± 1.53 5.19 ± 1.49 < 0.0001    
Mean of all TC levelso 5.72 ± 1.23 4.95 ± 1.11 < 0.0001    
AM of all TC levelso 5.72 ± 1.23 4.94 ± 1.11 < 0.0001    
AUC of all TC levelsp 15, 806 ± 13, 063 11, 117 ± 11, 976 0.0006    
SBP at study starto     131.65 ± 21.29 123.11 ± 19.08 < 0.0001
Mean of first two SBPso     132.45 ± 19.00 123.03 ± 17.35 < 0.0001
Mean of all SBPso     134.90 ± 15.32 121.96 ± 14.81 < 0.0001
AM of all SBPso     134.68 ± 15.351 121.88 ± 14.99 < 0.0001
AUC of all SBPs∞p     400, 217 ± 318, 056 285, 335 ± 304, 573 0.0006
DBP at study starto     77.3 ± 12.3 80.8 ± 11.8 0.009
Mean of first two DBPso     77.2 ± 10.5 82.0 ± 10.5 < 0.0001
Mean of all DBPso     76.2 ± 8.5 82.7 ± 6.7 < 0.0001
AM of all DBPso     76.2 ± 8.6 82.6 ± 6.8 < 0.0001
AUC of all DBPsp     179, 476 ± 192, 071 245, 236 ± 194, 324 0.002
  1. AM, time-adjusted mean; AUC, area-under-the-curve; CAD, coronary artery disease; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; SBP, systolic blood pressure; SLEDAI-2K, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index 2000; TC, total plasma cholesterol (mmol/L). aMenopause defined as a minimum of 12 months of amenorrhea irrespective of cause. bYears. cScores range from 0 to 105, with higher scores indicating more-active disease. dDisease manifestations defined based on SLEDAI-2K definitions. eChronic renal insufficiency defined based on SLICC/ACR DI definition (glomerular filtration rate < 50%, proteinuria ≥3.5 g/24 h, or end-stage renal disease). fMeasured by using commercial assays, with test reported positive if either IgM or IgG antibody level exceeded manufacturer-recommended cut points. gAntimalarials include chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine. hImmunosuppressives include methotrexate, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, cyclosporine, and cyclophosphamide. iHypertension was defined as DBP ≥90 or SBP ≥140 mm Hg or treatment with antihypertensive medication. jHypercholesterolemia was defined as TC > 5.2 mmol/L or lipid-lowering therapy. kDiabetes was defined as fasting plasma glucose > 7.0 mmol/L or diabetes therapy. lCurrent smoking is defined as smoking of an average of one or more cigarettes per day over the past month. mAll classes of antihypertensives including diuretics, β-blockers, calcium channel blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and angiotensin type II receptor blockers. nHMG Co-A reductase inhibitors (statins). ommol/L. pmmol/L multiplied by months.