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Table 4 Proportional hazards models for coronary outcomes using various measures of cholesterol, including only significant covariates in the models

From: Importance of cumulative exposure to elevated cholesterol and blood pressure in development of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease in systemic lupus erythematosus: a prospective proof-of-concept cohort study

  Time-dependent covariate models
  Most recent TC Mean TC Time-adjusted
mean TC
  HR
(95% CI)
P HR
(95% CI)
P HR
(95% CI)
P
Cholesterol (TC) 1.86
(1.30, 2.68)
0.001 2.07
(1.28, 3.36)
0.003 2.07
(1.28, 3.34)
0.003
Male sex 1.90
(1.06, 3.41)
0.03 1.83
(1.01, 3.29)
0.046 1.82
(1.01, 3.29)
0.047
Ageψ 1.12
(1.07, 1.17)
< 0.0001 1.13
(1.06, 1.20)
< 0.0001 1.13
(1.06, 1.20)
< 0.0001
SLEDAI-2K 1.09
(1.05, 1.13)
< 0.0001 1.10
(1.06, 1.14)
< 0.0001 1.10
(1.06, 1.14)
< 0.0001
Corticosteroidsβ 2.04
(1.20, 3.45)
0.01 2.01
(1.19, 3.41)
0.01 2.01
(1.19, 3.41)
0.01
  1. 95% CI, 95% confidence interval; AUC, area under the curve; BP, blood pressure (mm Hg); DBP: diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg); HR, hazard ratio; NS, not significant; P, P value; SBP, systolic blood pressure (mm Hg); TC, total plasma cholesterol (mmol/L).
  2. ψYears; age at the time of first available TC (or SBP or DBP) in time-constant models and coincident with each TC (or SBP or DBP) measurement in the time-dependent covariate models. SLE Disease Activity Index 2000; scores range from 0 to 105, with higher scores indicating more-active disease; measured at the time of first available TC (or SBP or DBP) in time-constant models, and coincident with each TC (or SBP or DBP) measurement in the time-dependent covariate models. ¢Hypertension defined as diastolic BP ≥ 90 or systolic BP ≥ 140 mm Hg; defined as present ever during the study in time-constant models, and coincident with each TC measurement in the time-dependent covariate models. βCorticosteroids defined as used ever during the study in time-constant models, and coincident with each TC (or SBP or DBP) measurement in the time-dependent covariate models. ζElevated total plasma cholesterol (hypercholesterolemia) defined as total plasma cholesterol > 5.2 mmol/L; measured at the time of first available SBP or DBP in time-constant models, and coincident with each SBP or DBP measurement in the time-dependent covariate models. §Antimalarials include chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine; defined as used ever during the study in time-constant models, and coincident with each TC (or SBP or DBP) measurement in the time-dependent covariate models. ¥Immunosuppressives include methotrexate, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, cyclosporine, and cyclophosphamide; defined as used ever during the study in time-constant models, and coincident with each TC (or SBP or DBP) measurement in the time-dependent covariate models.