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Table 6 Proportional hazards models for coronary events using various measures of diastolic blood pressure

From: Importance of cumulative exposure to elevated cholesterol and blood pressure in development of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease in systemic lupus erythematosus: a prospective proof-of-concept cohort study

  Time-constant models Time-dependent models
  First available ('remote') DBP Average of
first two DBP
Most recent DBP Mean DBP Time-adjusted
mean DBP
AUC DBP
  HR
(95% CI)
p HR
(95% CI)
p HR
(95% CI)
p HR
(95% CI)
p HR
(95% CI)
p HR
(95% CI)
p
Diastolic blood pressure (DBP) 1.00
(0.98, 1.02)
0.87 1.01
(0.99, 1.03)
0.46 1.02
(1.003, 1.05)
0.02 1.04
(1.01, 1.07)
0.02 1.04
(1.01, 1.07)
0.02 1.00
(1.00, 1.00)
0.94
Male sex 2.01
(1.13, 3.60)
0.02 2.00
(1.12, 3.58)
0.02 1.85
(1.02, 3.36)
0.04 1.72
(0.94, 3.15)
0.08 1.70
(0.93, 3.11)
0.09 1.88
(1.03, 3.43)
0.039
Ageψ 1.05
(1.04, 1.07)
< 0.0001 1.05
(1.04, 1.07)
< 0.0001 1.06
(1.04, 1.08)
< 0.0001 1.06
(1.04, 1.08)
< 0.0001 1.06
(1.04, 1.07)
< 0.0001 1.06
(1.04, 1.08)
< 0.0001
SLEDAI-2K 1.03
(1.01, 1.06)
0.01 1.03
(1.01, 1.06)
0.01 1.09
(1.05, 1.13)
< 0.0001 1.09
(1.05, 1.13)
< 0.0001 1.09
(1.05, 1.13)
< 0.0001 1.09
(1.05, 1.13)
< 0.0001
Elevated cholesterolζ 1.42
(0.67, 3.00)
0.36 1.40
(0.66, 2.96)
0.38 1.70
(1.05, 2.74)
0.03 1.70
(1.06, 2.75)
0.03 1.69
(1.04, 2.73)
0.03 1.86
(1.16, 2.99)
0.01
Corticosteroidsβ 2.81
(1.16, 6.80)
0.02 2.74
(1.13, 6.63)
0.03 1.75
(0.99, 3.10)
0.054 1.76
(1.00, 3.11)
0.051 1.72
(0.97, 3.03)
0.06 1.81
(1.02, 3.19)
0.04
Antimalarials§ 0.57
(0.36, 0.90)
0.02 0.59
(0.37, 0.94)
0.03 0.95
(0.60, 1.51)
0.82 0.96
(0.60, 1.53)
0.85 0.96
(0.60, 1.53)
0.85 0.92
(0.58, 1.47)
0.73
Immunosuppressives¥ 0.91
(0.58, 1.43)
0.68 0.89
(0.56, 1.41)
0.61 1.45
(0.89, 2.34)
0.13 1.37
(0.85, 2.23)
0.20 1.38
(0.85, 2.23)
0.20 1.43
(0.88, 2.32)
0.14
  1. 95% CI: 95% confidence interval; AUC: area under the curve; BP: blood pressure (mmHg); DBP: diastolic blood pressure (mmHg); HR: hazard ratio; NS: not significant; p: p value; SBP: systolic blood pressure (mmHg); TC: total plasma cholesterol (mmol/L).
  2. ψYears; age at the time of first available TC (or SBP or DBP) in time-constant models and coincident with each TC (or SBP or DBP) measurement in the time-dependent covariate models. SLE Disease Activity Index 2000; scores range from 0 to 105, with higher scores indicating more active disease; measured at the time of first available TC (or SBP or DBP) in time-constant models, and coincident with each TC (or SBP or DBP) measurement in the time-dependent covariate models. ¢Hypertension defined as Diastolic BP ≥ 90 or Systolic BP ≥ 140 mmHg; defined as present ever during the study in time-constant models, and coincident with each TC measurement in the time-dependent covariate models. βCorticosteroids defined as used ever during the study in time-constant models, and coincident with each TC (or SBP or DBP) measurement in the time-dependent covariate models. ζElevated total plasma cholesterol (Hypercholesterolemia) defined as total plasma cholesterol > 5.2 mmol/L; measured at the time of first available SBP or DBP in time-constant models, and coincident with each SBP or DBP measurement in the time-dependent covariate models. §Antimalarials include chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine; defined as used ever during the study in time-constant models, and coincident with each TC (or SBP or DBP) measurement in the time-dependent covariate models. ¥Immunosuppressives include methotrexate, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, cyclosporine and cyclophosphamide; defined as used ever during the study in time-constant models, and coincident with each TC (or SBP or DBP) measurement in the time-dependent covariate models.