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Table 2 Associations between traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors, IP related factors and insulin resistance after adjustment for age and gender

From: Seropositivity is associated with insulin resistance in patients with early inflammatory polyarthritis: results from the Norfolk Arthritis Register (NOAR): an observational study

Variable Dependent variable
  HOMA-IR (continuos)
(β-Coefficient (95% CI))
IR* (HOMA-IR > 2.29) #
(Odds ratio (95% CI))
Age at time of study (per year) 0.018 (-0.012, 0.048) 1.02 (0.99, 1.04)
Male gender 0.044 (-0.665, 0.753) 1.27 (0.67, 2.39)
Current smoker 0.004 (-0.747, 0.755) 0.71 (0.37, 1.37)
Obese (Y/N) 1.602 (0.963, 2.240) 4.02 (1.91, 8.50)
SBP (per mmHg) 0.029 (0.007, 0.050) 1.02 (1.00, 1.04)
DBP (per mmHg) 0.043 (0.009, 0.077) 1.04 (1.01, 1.08)
TG (per mmol/L) 1.057 (0.542, 1.572) 3.95 (2.09, 7.46)
T.Chol (per mmol/L) 0.155 (-0.162, 0.472) 1.19 (0.90, 1.59)
HDL (per mmol/L) -1.375 (-2.172, -0.578) 0.44 (0.21, 0.92)
LDL (per mmol/L) 0.193 (-0.169, 0.556) 1.11 (0.80, 1.53)
DM (On treatment for DM/DM/fasting glucose ≥ 7.1 mmol/L) -0.114 (-1.170, 0.942) 0.73 (0.29, 1.82)
IP disease duration (per month) -0.001 (-0.003, 0.001) 1.00 (1.00, 1.00)
RF positive 0.924 (0.254, 1.594) 2.20 (1.20, 4.06)
ACPA positive 1.051 (0.336, 1.767) 3.00 (1.51, 5.96)
ACR criteria for RA 0.542 (-0.114, 1.198) 1.62 (0.90, 2.93)
Swollen joint (per joint) 0.032 (-0.016, 0.080) 1.03 (0.98, 1.07)
Tender joint (per joint) 0.029 (0.002, 0.056) 1.01 (0.99, 1.04)
CRP (per mg/L) 0.007 (-0.012, 0.026) 1.00 (0.99, 1.02)
DAS28 0.168 (-0.100, 0.437) 1.05 (0.83, 1.34)
HAQ 0.709 (0.237, 1.182) 1.41 (0.91, 2.19)
On steroids prior to baseline assessment -0.300 (-1.094, 0.493) 0.74 (0.37, 1.48)
On DMARDs prior to baseline assessment 0.533 (-0.124, 1.190) 1.31 (0.73, 2.34)
On MTX prior to baseline assessment 0.277 (-0.435, 0.989) 0.94 (0.50, 1.76)
On HQC prior to baseline assessment -0.218 (-1.636, 1.200) 0.81 (0.24, 2.79)
  1. Linear regression producing β-coefficients were used for continuous outcome. β-coefficients are considered statistically significant if their 95% CI values do not include zero. #Logistic regression producing odds ratios used for binary outcomes. Odds ratios are considered significant if the 95% CI values do not include 1. † (adjusted for age and gender)
  2. ACPA, anti-CCP antibody; ACR, American College of Rheumatology; BMI, body mass index; CRP, C-reactive protein; DAS, Disease Activity Score; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; DM, diabetes mellitus; DMARDs, disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs; HAQ, Health Assessment Questionnaire; HCQ, hydroxychloroquine; HDL, high density lipoprotein; IP, inflammatory polyarthritis; LDL, low density lipoprotein; MTX, methotrexate; RF, rheumatoid factor; SBP, systolic blood pressure; T.Chol, total cholesterol; TG, triglycerides.