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Table 2 Analyses of covariance (modified intention-to-treat analysis by last observation carried forward method) for mean scores on primary and secondary outcome measures by group at baseline, posttreatment and six-month follow-up

From: Effectiveness of cognitive behaviour therapy for the treatment of catastrophisation in patients with fibromyalgia: a randomised controlled trial

Outcome measures Mean
CBT
(± SD)
Mean
RPT
(± SD)
Mean
TAU
(± SD)
F-value P-value ηp2 Pairwise
comparisons
Cohen's d
CBT vs RPT
Cohen's d
CBT vs TAU
Cohen's d
RPT vs TAU
PCS total score (0 to 52)           
   Baseline 34.13 (9.29) 32.19 (7.05) 31.23 (7.18)        
   Posttreatment 24.79 (7.41) 31.36 (7.10) 31.47 (6.90) 133.34 0.001 0.63 1 < 2, 3 0.91 0.93 0.02
   Six-month follow-up 25.50 (7.24) 30.64 (6.75) 32.74 (7.04) 144.33 0.001 0.65 1 < 2 < 3 0.73 1.01 0.30
PCS-Rumination (0 to 16)           
   Baseline 11.87 (3.08) 11.08 (2.57) 10.92 (2.77)        
   Posttreatment 8.82 (2.47) 10.68 (2.53) 11.09 (2.60) 100.82 0.001 0.56 1 < 2, 3 0.74 0.90 0.16
Six-month
follow-up
9.02 (2.46) 10.28 (2.50) 11.34 (2.61) 87.82 0.001 0.53 1 < 2 < 3 0.51 0.91 0.42
PCS-Magnification
(0 to 12)
          
   Baseline 6.38 (2.63) 6.23 (2.40) 5.92 (2.22)        
   Posttreatment 5.18 (2.27) 6.15 (2.48) 6.19 (2.23) 33.08 0.001 0.30 1 < 2, 3 0.41 0.45 0.02
Six-month
follow-up
5.59 (2.32) 6.34 (2.42) 6.62 (2.27) 23.65 0.001 0.23 1 < 2 < 3 0.32 0.45 0.12
PCS-Helplessness
(0 to 24)
          
   Baseline 15.89 (5.07) 14.89 (3.98) 14.57 (4.13)        
   Posttreatment 10.79 (4.04) 14.55 (3.98) 14.36 (3.99) 74.29 0.001 0.49 1 < 2, 3 0.94 0.90 0.05
Six-month
follow-up
10.95 (4.01) 14.02 (3.85) 14.94 (4.27) 68.04 0.001 0.46 1 < 2 < 3 0.78 0.96 0.23
CPAQ (0 to 120)           
   Baseline 49.00 (10.33) 44.40 (8.90) 44.45 (10.80)        
   Posttreatment 51.30 (9.53) 43.36 (9.00) 43.15 (10.86) 33.07 0.001 0.29 1 > 2, 3 0.86 0.80 0.02
Six-month
follow-up
50.46 (9.37) 43.47 (8.85) 42.53 (10.40) 24.97 0.001 0.24 1 > 2, 3 0.77 0.80 0.10
HAM-D (0 to 50)           
   Baseline 14.47 (3.93) 14.94 (4.03) 14.09 (4.64)        
   Posttreatment 7.78 (2.46) 7.98 (1.80) 8.17 (2.25) 2.17 0.12 0.03 ns 0.09 0.17 0.09
Six-month
follow-up
7.91 (2.50) 8.19 (1.96) 8.57 (2.47) 4.05 0.02 0.05 1 < 3 0.12 0.27 0.17
HARS (0 to 56)           
   Baseline 10.84 (4.27) 11.22 (3.75) 9.50 (2.98)        
   Posttreatment 7.09 (2.96) 7.11 (2.39) 7.40 (2.18) 9.71 0.001 0.11 1, 2 < 3 0.01 0.12 0.13
Six-month
follow-up
7.25 (3.02) 7.39 (2.57) 7.58 (2.07) 8.49 0.001 0.10 1, 2 < 3 0.05 0.13 0.08
PVAS (0 to 100)           
   Baseline 64.20 (10.78) 68.13 (9.84) 64.72 (10.44)        
   Posttreatment 36.88 (8.29) 37.14 (10.53) 38.68 (7.48) 2.25 0.109 0.03 ns 0.03 0.23 0.17
Six-month
follow-up
40.68 (10.93) 40.54 (9.61) 44.34 (8.56) 7.48 0.001 0.09 2 < 3 0.01 0.37 0.42
FIQ (0 to 100)           
   Baseline 65.91 (10.85) 66.36 (9.88) 64.48 (10.50)        
   Posttreatment 46.21 (9.18) 50.93 (9.38) 48.64 (6.77) 6.96 0.001 0.08 1 < 2, 3 0.51 0.30 0.28
Six-month
follow-up
48.80 (9.11) 52.84 (9.17) 53.26 (7.54) 11.22 0.001 0.12 1 < 2, 3 0.44 0.53 0.05
EuroQol VAS (0 to 100)           
   Baseline 44.55 (16.47) 46.82 (15.62) 43.87 (14.50)        
   Posttreatment 60.45 (16.63) 58.00 (13.07) 53.49 (14.40) 11.49 0.001 0.13 1 > 2, 3 0.16 0.45 0.33
Six-month
follow-up
58.39 (16.27) 56.73 (13.85) 52.26 (14.03) 10.44 0.001 0.12 1 > 2, 3 0.11 0.40 0.32
  1. CBT = cognitive-behaviour therapy; CPAQ = Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire; EuroQol VAS = EuroQol Visual Analogue Scale; FIQ = Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire; HAM-D = Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression; HARS = Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale; PCS = Pain Catastrophizing Scale; PVAS = Pain Visual Analogue Scale; RPT = recommended pharmacological treatment; TAU = treatment as usual. ns = nonsignificant difference between groups (P > 0.05).