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Table 3 Fixed and time-varyinga patient characteristics associated with vaccination

From: The use, safety, and effectiveness of herpes zoster vaccination in individuals with inflammatory and autoimmune diseases: a longitudinal observational study

  All subjects Subjects aged 60 years or olderb
Baseline Hazard ratio 95% Confidence interval Hazard ratio 95% Confidence interval
Age groups, years     
   50-59 0.06 0.05-0.08 NA NA
   60-64c 1.00 - - -
   ≥ 65 0.41 0.31-0.53 0.42 0.33-0.54
Women, n (%) 1.13 0.95-1.35 1.17 0.97-1.41
Disease status     
   Rheumatoid arthritisd 1.00 - - -
   Psoriatic arthritis 1.58 0.86-2.91 1.27 0.63-2.59
   Psoriasis 1.48 1.17-1.86 1.54 1.21-1.95
   Inflammatory bowel diseases 1.71 1.36-2.14 1.64 1.29-2.09
   Ankylosing spondylitis 1.45 0.71-2.97 1.23 0.54-2.79
   Multiple diseases 1.00 0.72-1.39 1.01 0.71-1.43
History of herpes zoster infection     
   Nonee 1.00 - - -
   Recent 2.84 1.34-6.01 2.21 0.91-5.35
   Remote 0.93 0.51-1.69 0.82 0.42-1.59
Medications (current use)     
   TNF antagonists 0.47 0.33-0.67 0.41 0.27-0.61
   Other biologics (see Additional file 1) 0.52 0.19-1.40 0.59 0.22-1.58
   Conventional DMARDs 0.92 0.72-1.19 0.91 0.70-1.19
   Oral glucocorticoids     
Nonef 1.00 - - -
Low/medium 0.84 0.66-1.08 0.85 0.66-1.10
High 0.46 0.15-1.45 0.53 0.17-1.68
Charlson co-morbidity index     
   0g 1.00 - - -
   1 0.76 0.61-0.95 0.77 0.61-0.97
   ≥ 2 0.57 0.42-0.78 0.57 0.42-0.79
One or more inpatient physician visit 0.53 0.40-0.72 0.50 0.37-0.69
Number of outpatient physician visits     
   0-2h 1.00 - - -
   3-5 1.68 1.32-2.14 1.70 1.31-2.19
   6-10 1.80 1.39-2.34 1.80 1.37-2.38
   > 10 2.08 1.47-2.93 2.03 1.41-2.92
Influenza vaccine in the past year 2.25 1.87-2.71 2.05 1.69-2.49
Pneumococcal vaccine in the past year 1.79 1.45-2.21 1.81 1.45-2.26
  1. aGender and disease status were fixed; all other characteristics were time-varying. Time-varying characteristics were ascertained by using claims in the preceding 6-month period, unless otherwise specified in the table. bSensitivity analysis restricted to individuals aged 60 and older.
  2. Reference groups were as follows: cage category 60-64; dRA patients; eSubjects without prior zoster infection; fsubjects not prescribed oral glucocorticoids in the past 6 months (cumulative average daily prednisone-equivalent glucocorticoid dose: low/medium ≤20 mg/day and high (> 20 mg/day); gsubjects with Charlson score = 0; hsubject who had none to two outpatient physician encounter (s) in the past 6 months. DMARDS, disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs; RA, rheumatoid arthritis; TNF, tumor necrosis factor. Bolded data indicates statistically significant associations.