IL-1 and TNF-α decreased cell proliferation and TGF-β1 increased cell proliferation throughout the cross section. (A) Schematic of a meniscal repair explant, indicating the cross-section of the tissue that was analyzed in pink. The cross-section was divided into three layers: S = superficial layer that comprised the first 50 μm of the tissue, M = middle layer that contained the next 100 μm of tissue, and D = deep layer that consisted of the next 300 μm of meniscal tissue. Representative confocal images of the cross-section of (B) inner or (C) outer zone meniscal repair explants that were treated with 0, 10 ng/mL IL-1, 10 ng/mL TNF-α, or 10 ng/mL TGF-β1 for 14 days. In the confocal images, cells that have proliferated are yellow and all cells are labeled red. The scale bar is equal to 100 μm. Inner and outer zone explants were treated with control media and (D) 10 ng/mL IL-1, (E) 10 ng/mL TNF-α, or (F) 10 ng/mL TGF-β1 for 14 days. The data are graphed as a percentage of proliferated cells in the cross-section superficial (S), middle (M), and deep (D) layers of the tissue + standard error.