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Table 1 Characteristics of the studies

From: Ultrasound in the evaluation of enthesitis: status and perspectives

Year Authors Type of Article Sample Size Population of interest Entheses sites of interest Face validity
1987 Maffulli [42] case series 47 Athletes A N
1989 Olivieri [47] case report 1 SPA A, PF, ischial tuberosity, trochanter N
1994 Lehtinen [40] case control 39 SPA (ReA, PsA, AS) pelvic adductor origin, trochanter, ischial tuberosity, PT, A, PF N
1995 Lehtinen [39] cohort 23 SPA ischial tuberosity, trochanter, PT, A, PF N
1998 Olivieri [46] case series 14 SPA A (hanging free over the edge of the table) N
1999 Gibbon [32] case control 370 clinically idiopathic plantar fasciitis, SPA, RA, Achilles tendon disease, ankle instability, healthy subjects A, PF (90°) N
2000 Balint [17] case report 1 PsA A (hanging free) N
2000 Galluzzo [29] case series 31 PsA A, PF N
2001 Cosentino [19] RCT 60 patients with talalgia PF N
2002 Balint [16] case series 35 SPA (AS, PsA, ReA) GUESS score: A, PF (90°),PTPI, PTDI, Q (30°) N
2002 D'Agostino [21] case report 2 SPA A, PF N
2002 Falsetti [10] case control 450 SPA ,RA, OA, painful shoulders, healthy subjects Deltoid tendon insertion N
2002 Falsetti [28] case control 178 PMR, SPA(PsA, AIBD, uSpA), RA wrist, elbow, shoulder, hip, knee, ankle, heel N
2002 Frediani [27] case control 160 PsA, RA, healthy subjects Q (30°) N
2003 D'Agostino [22] case control 228 SPA, MBP, RA A, PF, tibialis anterior tendon, CET, FCT, PT, Q, gluteus medius and minimus tendons N
2003 De Simone [24] case control 109 psoriatic with arthritis or spondylitis, healthy subjects A N
2003 Falsetti [11] case control 598 EOA , NOA , RA, PsA, healthy subjects A, PF N
2003 Kamel [34] case series 32 SPA A, PF Y
2004 Falsetti [9] case control 157 CCA, OA, healthy subjects A, PF N
2004 Kamel [35] case series 16 SPA PT N
2005 Genc [30] case control 62 RA , AS, healthy subjects * N
2005 Ozçakar [48] case control 50 Psoriasis, healthy subjects A (Neutral flexion) N
2005 Ozgocmen [49] case report 1 AS A N
2005 Wakefield [52] consensus - NA NA N
2006 Borman [18] case series 44 SPA (AS, PsA, ReA, uSpA) A, PF N
2006 Fournie [26] case control 41 PsA, RA flexor tendons of the hand N
2006 Kiris [37] case series 30 AS MASES ** N
2006 Tse [51] case report 1 AS A, PF, Q, PT N
2007 Alcalde [14] case control 54 AS, healthy subjects A(neutral flexion), PF (neutral flexion),PTPI(60°), PTDI (60°), Q (60°) N
2007 Genc [31] cohort 54 RA, AS GUESS * N
2007 Kerimoglu [36] case series 49 Hemodialysis GUESS * N
2007 Scarpa [50] case control 47 PsA , "sine psoriasis"patients All entheses with increased tracer uptake in scintigraphy N
2007 Wiell [53] case control 20 PsA, RA, healthy subjects flexor/extensor tendons of the hands Y
2008 de Miguel [23] case control 54 SPA(AS, ReA, uSpA, PsA, juvenile SPA), healthy subjects MASEI score: A (90°), PF (90°), PTPI (70°), PTDI (70°), Q, brachial triceps tendon (90°) N
2008 Filippou [12] case series 7 Ochronosis flexor/extensor tendon of the hand, CET, CFT, distal brachial triceps tendon, gluteus medius and minimus tendons, Q, PT, iliotibial band, A, PF, anterior and posterior tibialis tendon, peroneal tendon, toe extensor tendon N
2008 Gisondi [33] case control 60 Psoriasis, healthy subjects GUESS * N
2008 Hatemi [7] case control 160 Behçet, AS, RA, healthy control GUESS * Y
2008 Klauser [38] case control 33 SPA (AS, PsA, uSpA, ReA, AIBD), RA, patients with non rheumatic disease MASES ** N
2008 Mc Gonagle [44] case control 47 SPA(AS, PsA, ReA), healthy subjects A (90°) N
2009 D'Agostino [20] case series 5 SPA(AS, uSpA, PsA, AIBD) Q, PTPI , CET, A, PF N
2009 Filippucci [13] case series 28 SPA A (hanging in neutral position) N
2009 Matsos [43] case series 62 NA NA N
2009 Munoz-Fernandez [45] case control 79 SPA, anterior uveitis, healthy subjects MASEI *** N
2009 Filippucci [25] case series NA PsA A N
2009 Iagnocco [8] case series 93 SPA A(hanging in neutral position) N
2010 Gutierrez [6] case series 30 PsA U: A, Apo, PT N
2010 Li [41] case control 70 SPA(AS, ReA, PsA,AIBD, uSpA), healthy subjects A (90°) N
2010 Aydin [15] Case series 43 SPA A (hanging in neutral position) N
  1. A, Achilles tendon; AIBD, arthritis associated with inflammatory bowel disease; AS , ankylosing spondylitis; ASIS, anterior superior iliac spines; CET, commun extensor tendon insertion on lateral epicondyle; CFT, common flexor tendon insertion on medial epicondyle; EOA, erosive osteoarthritis; MBP, mechanical low back pain; NA, not available; NOA, nodular osteoarthritis; OA, osteoarthritis; PF, Plantar Fascia; PMR, polymyalgia rheumatica; PsA, psoriatic arthritis; PSIS, posterior superior iliac spines; PT, patellar tendon; PTDI, patellar tendon distal insertion; PTPI, patellar tendon proximal insertion; Q, quadriceps; RA , rheumatoid arthritis; RCT, randomized control trial; ReA, reactive arthritis; SPA, spondylarthropathy; uSpA, undifferenciated spondyloarthritis
  2. * GUESS score: A; PF (90°),PTPI, PTDI, Q (30°), ** MASES: 1st and 7th costosternal joints, PSIS, ASIS, iliac crests, A, 5th lumbar spinous process, *** MASEI score: A (90°), PF (90°), PTPI (70°), PTDI (70°), Q, brachial triceps tendon (90°)