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Table 3 The association between dietary factors and lipids with a change in total BML size

From: A longitudinal study of the association between dietary factors, serum lipids, and bone marrow lesions of the knee

  Univariate Multivariablea
  β (95% CI) P β (95% CI) P
Dietary factors     
   Energy intake 8.60 (-2.46, 19.67) 0.127 15.44 (1.71, 29.16) 0.028
   Total fat 1.86 (-9.24, 12.95) 0.742 7.70 (-6.69, 22.09) 0.293
   Carbohydrate 14.45 (3.45, 25.46) 0.010 19.27 (6.23, 32.31) 0.004
   Protein 5.32 (-5.76, 16.41) 0.346 12.00 (-1.80, 25.79) 0.088
   Sugars 14.53 (3.52, 25.53) 0.010 16.90 (4.38, 29.42) 0.008
Individual fats     
   Monounsaturated fat 3.37 (-7.73, 14.46) 0.551 10.00 (-4.50, 24.50) 0.176
   Polyunsaturated fat 6.26 (-4.83, 17.34) 0.268 11.17 (-1.85, 24.20) 0.092
   Saturated fat -1.88 (-12.97, 9.22) 0.740 1.37 (-12.49, 15.22) 0.846
Lipids     
   Total cholesterol -5.45 (-16.62, 5.72) 0.338 -6.02 (-18.85, 6.82) 0.357b
   Triglycerides -7.24 (-18.42, 3.95) 0.204 -6.40 (-19.05, 6.25) 0.321b
   LDL cholesterol 1.62 (-9.59, 12.83) 0.776 -0.97 (-14.27, 12.32) 0.885b
   HDL cholesterol -11.18 (-22.30, -0.05) 0.049 -11.66 (-25.08, 1.76) 0.088b
  1. Values are expressed as a change in total BML size (mm2) per 1 standard deviation increase in dietary or lipid factor. aAdjusted for age, sex, body mass index, baseline BMLs, smoking, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, radiographic osteoarthritis, and time to follow-up. bFurther adjusted for statin use. Boldface denotes statistically significant result. 95% CI, 95% confidence interval; β, beta coefficients; BML, bone marrow lesion; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; P, P value.