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Table 1 Endothelial progenitor cell measurement in systemic lupus erythematosus

From: Endothelial progenitor cells: a new player in lupus?

Number of patients
with SLE
EPC definition Main findings Reference
15 with SLE CD34+KDR+ ↓ CD34+, ↓ CD34+KDR+ in SLE Westerweel et al. [49], 2005
15 controls   EPCs inversely correlated with cholesterol  
   ↑ EPCs in hydroxychloroquine users  
   ↑ CD34+ apoptotic cells in SLE  
135 with SLE
(95% were women)
CD34/CD133+ ↓ CD34/CD133+ in SLE Denny et al. [50], 2007
   EPCs correlated with disease activity  
60 controls
(55% were women)
  Impaired differentiation to EC  
   EPCs have increased IFN-α expression in SLE  
44 with SLE CD34/CD133+ ↓ CD34+, CD133+, CD34/CD133+ in SLE Moonen et al. [51], 2007
35 controls   ↓ CFUs in SLE  
   No correlation with SLE factors  
70 with SLE CFU-Hill ↓ CFU-Hill in SLE Lee et al. [56], 2007
31 controls CD34/KDR+ ↓ CD34/KDR+ in SLE  
   EPCs inversely correlated with hsCRP  
   No correlation with CHD risk factors or SLE factors  
   High IFN-I levels associated with impaired endothelial function in SLE  
31 with SLE CD34/CD133/KDR+ ↔ CD34/CD133/KDR+ Grisar et al. [54], 2008
14 controls CFU-Hill ↔ CFU-Hill  
28 with SLE CFU-Hill ↔ CFU-Hill Ablin et al. [55], 2010
50 controls   No correlation with CHD risk factors or SLE factors  
19 with SLE KDR/CD133+ CD34/KDR+ ↓ CD34/KDR+ in SLE Ebner et al. [57], 2010
19 controls Late-outgrowth colonies ↑ KDR/CD133+ in SLE  
   ↔ Late-outgrowth colonies  
17 with SLE
(100% were women)
CD34/CD133/KDR+ ↓ CD34/CD133/KDR+ in SLE Baker et al. [52], 2011
  CD34/CD133+ ↔ CD34/CD133+  
13 controls
(38% were women)
  No correlation with coronary artery calcification score in SLE  
35 with active SLE Late-outgrowth colonies ↔ CD34/Dil-acLDL/UEA Deng et al. [53], 2010
35 controls CD34/Dil-acLDL/UEA ↓ proliferation, adhesion, and migration in SLE  
   No correlation with SLE factors  
  1. ↑, increase in; ↓, decrease in; ↔, no change in; CFU, colony-forming unit; CHD, coronary heart disease; Dil-acLDL, Dil-labeled acetylated low-density lipoprotein; EC, endothelial cell; EPC, endothelial progenitor cell; hsCRP, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein; IFN-α, interferon-alpha; KDR, kinase insert domain receptor; SLE, systemic lupus erythematosus; UEA, Ulex europaeus agglutinin.