Serum levels of HMGB1 of responders and non-responders at baseline and follow-up. Patients with renal BILAG (British Isles lupus assessment group) C or D at follow-up were regarded as responders. In non-responding patients, serum levels of HMGB1 remained high at follow-up. Though not statistically significant, a clear trend of decreasing serum HMGB1 was documented in patients who responded to induction therapy. Data are expressed as means, and vertical bars denote 95% confidence intervals. HMGB1, high-mobility group box 1 protein.