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Table 2 Summary of the presence, extent, and localization of citrullination and PAD isotypes in the myocardium of RA patients

From: Myocardial citrullination in rheumatoid arthritis: a correlative histopathologic study

  Cardiomycocytes VSMCs Endothelium Leukocytes Extracellular matrix
Citrullination Absent Absent Absent Absent +++
PAD1 +++a Absent Absent + Absent
PAD2 +b + + +++ Absent
PAD3 +++a, c ++ + ++ Absent
PAD4 +b + + +++ Absent
PAD6 +b ++ ++ Absent Absent
  1. aGranular staining pattern; bcytoplasmic staining pattern; cnuclear staining pattern.
  2. PAD, peptidyl-arginine deiminase; VSMC, vascular smooth muscle cells.