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Table 1 Rheumatoid arthritis-related parameters and traditional cardiovascular risk factors in subgroups of nondiabetic rheumatoid arthritis patients stratified by the presence of at least one new carotid plaque at follow-up enda

From: Predictors of new atherosclerotic carotid plaque development in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a longitudinal study

  New carotid plaque formation during follow-up
Parameters Yes No
Patient demographics   
   Total number of patients 19 45
   Age at follow-up end (years)b 70.6 ± 6.9 59.2 ± 12.1
   Sex, n (%) 14 women (73.7) 5 men (26.3) 39 women (86.7) 6 men (13.3)
   Months of follow-up (months) 40.6 ± 3.0 40.9 ± 3.0
RA-related parameters   
   Duration of disease at follow-up end (years) 9.4 ± 3.9 11.9 ± 6.9
   Functional class of disease, n (%)   
Class I 12 (63.2) 18 (40.0)
Class II 6 (31.6) 17 (37.8)
Class III 1 (5.3) 9 (20.0)
Class IV 0 (0) 1 (2.2)
   Stage of disease, n (%)   
Early 6 (31.6) 11 (24.4)
Moderate 12 (63.2) 19 (42.2)
Severe 1 (5.3) 14 (31.1)
Terminal 0 (0) 1 (2.2)
   RF-positive, n (%) 13 (68.4) 29 (64.4)
   hs-CRP AUC during follow-up (mg/dl × months) 16.6 (12.4, 57.5) 23.8 (12.3, 45.2)
   ESR AUC during follow-up (mm/hour × months) 1,121.1 ± 627.6 1,157.0 ± 537.6
Disease-related treatments (months during follow-up)   
   Nonbiologic DMARDs 38.4 (35.1, 41.4) 40.0 (32.6, 42.5)
   Biologic agents 0.0 (0.0, 39.3) 31.6 (0.0, 41.4)
   Corticosteroids 40.5 (35.2, 42.3) 33.2 (3.7, 41.7)
Remission during follow-up (months) 36.2 (32.4, 39.1) 31.4 (11.3, 37.3)
Remission during follow-up (% of follow-up time) 90.5 (85.0, 92.9) 84.6 (27.8, 92.6)
Traditional cardiovascular risk factors   
   Hypertension at baseline, n (%) 12 (66.7) 17 (37.8)
   SBP AUC during follow-up (mmHg × months) 5,791.1 ± 634.3 5,416.7 ± 599.6
   DBP AUC during follow-up (mmHg × months) 3,491.4 ± 306.5 3,333.9 ± 323.9
   Antihypertensive treatment (% follow-up time) 2.3 (0, 2.4) 0 (0, 2.3)
   LDL ≥ 160 mg/dl and/or under statin treatment at baseline, n (%) 8 (42.1) 12 (26.7)
   LDL AUC during follow-up (mg/dl × months) 5,528.9 ± 1294.1 5,457.7 ± 1377.9
   Statin use during follow-up (% follow-up time) 0.0 (0.0, 29.0) 0.0 (0.0, 0.0)
   Smoking at end of follow-up, n (%) 7 (36.8) 14 (31.1)
   Total years of smoking 30 (0.0, 40.0) 0.0 (0.0, 29.0)
BMI (kg/m2)   
   BMI at baseline 26.1 ± 3.5 25.9 ± 3.7
   BMI at follow-up end 26.0 ± 3.8 26.3 ± 4.4
   Positive family history of CAD, n (%) 7 (36.8) 8 (17.8)
Number of CV risk factors, n (%)   
   0 0 (0) 13 (28.9)
   1 9 (47.4) 17 (37.8)
   2 7 (36.8) 12 (26.7)
   3 3 (15.8) 3 (6.7)
Carotid plaques at baseline, n (%) 14 (73.7) 16 (35.6)
  1. aAUC: area under the curve, BMI: body mass index, CAD: coronary artery disease, CV: cardiovascular, DBP: diastolic blood pressure, ESR: erythrocyte sedimentation rate, hs-CRP: high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, LDL: low-density lipoprotein, RA: rheumatoid arthritis, SBP: systolic blood pressure. Data are number (%), mean ± SD or median (lower and upper quartiles). bSignificant difference between subgroups after Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons (P = 0.0084). All other comparisons did not reach significance.