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Table 2 Multivariate models predicting new carotid plaque formation in nondiabetic patients with rheumatoid arthritis over 3.6 ± 0.2 yearsa

From: Predictors of new atherosclerotic carotid plaque development in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a longitudinal study

  New carotid plaque formation during follow-up (yes vs no)  
Parameters β coefficient Pvalue Odds ratio (95% CI)
Model 1: traditional CV risk factors (r2 = 0.0453)    
   Age at follow-up end (years) 0.146 0.004 5.752b (1.770 to 18.694)
   Sex 0.038 0.970 0.963b (0.134 to 6.927)
   Total years of smoking (at follow-up end) 0.051 0.023 2.628b (1.145 to 6.029)
   SBP AUC (mmHg × months) 0.001 0.346 1.495b (0.648 to 3.449)
   LDL AUC (mg/dl × months) 0.000 0.126 0.507b (0.212 to 1.211)
   BMI (at follow-up end) 0.088 0.356 1.445b (0.661 to 3.160)
Model 3 RA treatment (months of treatment during follow-up) (r2 = 0.248)    
   Corticosteroids 0.067 0.016 3.058 (1.231 to 7.593)
   Biologic agents -0.035 0.046 0.502 (0.255 to 0.987)
   Nonbiologic DMARDs -0.017 0.477 0.802 (0.437 to 1.473)
Final model (r2 = 0.559)c    
   Age at follow-up end (years) 0.136 0.006 5.098 (1.599 to 16.250)
   Total years of smoking (at follow-up end) 0.055 0.009 2.875 (1.305 to 6.335)
   Corticosteroids (months during follow-up) 0.086 0.016 4.170 (1.299 to 13.385)
   Biologic agents (months during follow-up) -0.033 0.118 0.520 (0.230 to 1.180)
  1. aAUC: area under the curve, BMI: body mass index, CV: cardiovascular, DMARDs: disease modifying antirheumatic drugs, LDL: low-density lipoprotein, RA: rheumatoid arthritis, SBP: systolic blood pressure. cOnly the variables from models 1 to 3 that predicted new plaque formation were used in the final model. Model 2 is described in the text only. bThe odds ratio for the continuous values was assessed for 1 SD increase and so is provided by exp(β*SD) (SD for age 12.0, for total years of smoking 19.15, for SBP (AUC) 629.10, for LDL (AUC) 1343.77, for BMI 4.25, for corticosteroid treatment (months during follow-up) 16.60, for biologic agents received (months during follow-up) 19.90, for nonbiologic DMARDs (months during follow-up) 13.20). Dependent variable 0 is subjects with no new plaque (n = 45), variable 1 is subjects with at least one plaque (n = 19) at the end of follow-up (binary logistic regression analysis using enter method is presented, and identical results in all models were obtained using the backward method).