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Table 1 Causes of death in deceased patients (n = 42)

From: Risk factors for cardiovascular mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, a prospective cohort study

Primary cause of death Number of patients Age at death, years Age at SLE diagnosis, years Disease duration at baseline, years
Cardiovascular mortality 20 (48%) 69 (± 11) 43 (± 18) 19 (± 14)
Myocardial infarction 10    
Congestive.heart failure 7    
CVLcerebrovascular lesion 1    
Atherosclerosis 1    
Sudden death 1    
Non-vascular mortality 18 57 (± 13) 36 (± 13) 15 (± 10)
Infection 5 (12%) 46 (± 12) 20 (± 6.8) 16 (± 10)
Sepsis 3    
Pneumonia 1    
Perforation of esophagus 1    
Bleeding 4 (10%) 56 (± 16) 32 (± 13) 20 (± 9)
Gastrointestinal bleeding 3    
Unknown 1    
Malignancy 4 (10%) 62 (± 6) 37 (± 10) 18 (± 9)
Lung cancer 2    
Colorectal cancer 1    
Squamous cell cancer 1    
Suicide 2 (5%) 64 (± 3) 51 (± 19) 11 (± 13)
Pulmonary disease (pneumothorax) 1 (2%) 54 46 6
Renal failure 1 (2%) 85 73 2
Hepatic failure (cirrhosis) 1 (2%) 67 54 2
Pulmonary hypertension 4 (10%) 41 (± 16) 29 (± 13) 10 (± 9)
Total/Average 42 62 (± 14) 33 (± 13) 13 (± 10)
  1. Age is given as mean ± SD.