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Table 2 Baseline characteristics of patients with SLE (n = 208)

From: Risk factors for cardiovascular mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, a prospective cohort study

  All patients n = 208 Deceased patients n = 42 Surviving patients n = 166 P
Traditional risk factors     
Age 47 (35-54) 57 (48-65) 45 (31-52) < 0.0001
Male gender 11% 14% 10%  
Smoking 24% 26% 22%  
Hypertension 34% 62% 28% < 0.0001
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg 125 (115-140) 140 (123-148) 120 (110-140) 0.001
Hypercholesterolemia 44% 55% 41%  
Total cholesterol, (mmol/l) 5.1 (4.3-6.0) 5.6 (4.7-6.7) 5.0 (4.3-5.9) 0.04
Low density lipoprotein mmol/l 2.9 (2.3-3.6) 3.3 (2.2-3.9) 2.8 (2.3-3.6)  
High density lipoprotein, mmol/l 1.4 (1.1-1.7) 1.4 (1.1-1.9) 1.4 (1.1-1.7)  
Triglycerides, mmol/l* 1.3 (1.0-2.0) 1.7 (1.2-2.5) 1.2 (0.9-1.9) 0.004
ApolipoproteinB/ApolipoproteinA*# 0.5 (0.3-0.6) 0.5 (0.3-0.8) 0.5 (0.3-0.6)  
Diabetes 3% 10% 2% 0.03
Established arterial disease 13% 40% 5% <0.0001
SCORE 3.2% (± 2.8) 4.4% (± 2.4) 2.7% (± 2.4) 0.005
Lupus manifestations (ever present)§     
Age at disease onset, years 30 (22-40) 35 (25-52) 28 (21-40) 0.0002
Disease duration, years 12 (5-20) 13.5 (6-26) 12 (5-19) 0.008
Malar rash 56% 50% 58%  
Discoid rash 20% 12% 21%  
Photosensitivity 71% 60% 73%  
Oral ulcers 28% 28% 26%  
Arthritis 86% 86% 86%  
Pleuritis 40% 52% 37%  
Pericarditis 18% 17% 19%  
Nephritis 35% 40% 34%  
Neurological disorder 15% 29% 12% 0.009
Leucopenia 51% 37% 55% 0.04
Thrombocytopenia 22% 30% 20%  
Previous venous occlusion 11% 17% 9%  
SLICC > 1 [25] 59% 93% 50% < 0.0001
SLAM > 6 [24] 59% 73% 55% 0.03
Autoantibodies against (at baseline if not stated otherwise)     
Double-stranded DNA 38% 43% 36%  
Double-stranded DNA (ever) 61% 64% 60%  
Cardiolipin IgG low titer 48% 50% 47%  
Cardiolipin IgG medium titer 18% 31% 15% 0.02
Cardiolipin IgM low titer 16% 19% 15%  
Cardiolipin IgM medium titer 8% 14% 6%  
beta2glykoprotein-1# 22% 31% 20%  
Lupus anticoagulant 23% 31% 21%  
Any antiphospholipid low titer¶ 60% 62% 60%  
Any antiphospholipid medium titer¶ 39% 55% 36% 0.03
Sjogrens syndrome A 41% 21% 46% 0.003
Sjogrens syndrome B 22% 10% 25%  
Smith 10% 7% 10%  
Ribonucleoprotein 19% 21% 19%  
Medication     
Steroids 51% 48% 62%  
Cyclofosfamid (ever use) 17% 26% 16%  
Azathioprine 12% 12% 12%  
Chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine 27% 14% 30% 0.04
Warfarin 13% 29% 10% 0.001
Acetylsalicylic acid 21% 33% 18% 0.02
Statins 2% 5% 1% 0.05
Methotrexate 4% 7% 1%  
Cyclosporine 3% 10% 1% 0.004
Inflammatory markers     
High sensitivity C reactive protein, mg/l* # 2.2 (0.8-6.2) 5.1 (2.2-12.1) 1.8 (0.7-4.5) 0.0002
Fibrinogen, g/l* # 3.7 (2.9-4.6) 4.3 (3.5-5.2) 3.4 (2.9-4.4) < 0.0001
α-1 antitrypsine, g/l # 1.5 (1.3-1.8) 1.7 (1.5-2.1) 1.5 (1.3-1.7) 0.0001
Serum amyloid A, mg/l* # 5.4 (2.7-12) 10.5 (5.9-21.6) 4.7 (2.4-9.6)  
Interleukin-6, ng/l* # 3.5 (2.1-7.0) 5.2 (2.9-9.7) 3.1 (2.0-6.2)  
Complement factor 3, g/l # 1.0 ( 0.8-1.2) 1.0 (0.7-1.3) 1.0 (0.8-1.2)  
Complement factor 3 degradation products, mg/l* # 11.9 (9.6-14.9) 13.4 (10.8-16.6) 11.6 (9.5-14.5) 0.02
Complement factor 4 (g/l)* # 0.2 (0.1-0.2) 0.2 (0.1-0.2) 0.2 (0.1-0.2)  
Endothelial markers     
Soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, ng/l* # 315 (258-392) 377 (297-526) 306 (250-375) < 0.0001
Von Willebrand factor, %*# 120 (63-175) 144 (102-231) 116 (60-164) 0.003
Markers of renal damage     
Creatinine 82 (73-95) 91 (75-138) 81 (73-92) < 0.0001
Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula, ml/min/1.73m2 66.6 (54.3-79.1) 54.6 (36.6-76.9) 67.7 (59.5-79.9) 0.0005
Cystatin C GFR 80 (61-107) 55 (27-83) 86 (71-114) < 0.0001
Cystatin C, mg/l* 1.0 (0.8-1.2) 1.3 (1.0-2.2) 0.9 (0.8-1.1) < 0.0001
Blod urea nitrogen, mmol/l* # 5.8 (4.7-7.3) 7.3 (6.1-13.6) 5.5 (4.5-6.7)  
Pathologic urine 24% 22% 29%  
Other biomarkers     
Homocysteine, mol/l* # 12.5 (10.1-16.5) 14.3 (10.8-20.6) 12 (10.0-15.3) 0.002
  1. Distributions are given as % or median (interquartile range), except for SCORE, where mean values are given. P-values ≤ 0.05 are presented. *Variables with non-normal distribution. # Analysis of frozen samples. §According to American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria [23]. ¶Positive antibody against cardiolipin IgG/IgM at low and medium titer, respectively, beta2glykoprotein-1, or a positive lupus anticoagulant test. Hypertension, systolic blood pressure > 140 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure > 90 mmHg and/or treatment for hypertension; hypercholesterolemia, total cholesterol level > 5.2 mmol/L; established arterial disease, history of myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, ischemic cerebrovascular disease, ischemic peripheral arterial disease at baseline; SCORE, systematic coronary risk evaluation calculated on 124 patients 40 to 65 years old; SLICC, systemic lupus international collaborating clinics; pathologic urine, as defined by the systemic lupus activity measure (SLAM). Data were missing as follows (deceased/survivors): low and high density lipoprotein (5/11), triglycerides (0/1), Apolipoprotein B/Apolipoprotein A (1/0), leucopenia (1/0), thrombocytopenia (1/3), cyclophosphamide ever (15/3), statins (0/3), cyklosporin (0/1), α-1 antitrypsine (0/1), serum amyloid (1/4), complement factor (C)3 (0/3), C3 degradation products (0/3), C 4 (0/3), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (1/2), von Willebrand factor (1/2), cystatin C/cystatin C glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (1/0), urea (3/3), homocysteine (2/5).