Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 3 Age-adjusted Cox regression analysis

From: Risk factors for cardiovascular mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, a prospective cohort study

  OM n = 42   CVM n = 20   N-VM n = 18  
  P-value HR (95% CI) P-value HR (95% CI) P-value HR (95% CI)
Age univariate < 0.0001 1.1 (1.0-1.1) < 0.0001 1.07 (1.04-1.1) 0.02 1,04 (1.00-1.1)
Age adjusted       
Traditional risk factors       
Smoking    0.02 3.3 (1.3-8.6)   
Hypertension 0.02 2.2 (1.1-4.5)    0.04 2.8 (1.0-7.9)
Cholesterol, mmol/l       
Triglycerides, mmol/l† 0.02 1.9 (1.1-3.3)    0.04 2.5 (1.1-5.7)
Established arterial disease < 0.0001 4.7 (2.4-9.1) 0.0006 5.4 (2.1-13.6) 0.0006 6.3 (2.3-16.9)
Lupus manifestations       
Nephritis    0.03 3.0 (1.2-7.9)   
Neurological disorder    0.04 2.9 (1.1-7.3)   
Epilepsy 0.03 2.3 (1.1-4.5) 0.01 3.7 (1.4-9.3)   
SLICC > 1 [25] <0.0001 6.3 (2.2-26.5) 0.04 3.7 (1.0-23.5) 0.002 9.6 (1.9-181.1)
SLAM > 6 [24] 0.02 2.1 (1.1-4.5)     
Autoantibodies against       
Double-stranded DNA 0.05 1.9 (1.0-3.6)    0.02 3.1 (1.2-8.3)
Cardiolipin IgG low titer      0.03 2.9 (1.1-8.1)
Cardiolipin IgG medium titer 0.006 2.7 (1.4-5.3) 0.04 3.2 (1.1-8.5) 0.02 3.6 (1.3-9.6)
beta2glykoprotein-1    0.04 2.9 (1.0-7.8)   
Any aPL medium titer ¶ 0.02 2.1 (1.1-3.9) 0.03 2.8 (1.1-7.7) 0.03 2.8 (1.1-7.6)
Sjogrens syndrome A 0.01 0.4 (0.2-0.8)     
Sjogrens syndrome B 0.04 0.4 (0.1-0.9)    0.003 5 × 10-7 (0-0.4)
Medications       
Warfarin 0.004 2.9 (1.4-5.7) 0.01 4.1 (1.4-11.1) 0.03 3.3 (1.1-8.3)
Hyperlipidemia    0.03 7.8 (1.2-27.9)   
Inflammatory markers       
High sensitivity CRP, mg/l† 0.01 1.3 (1.0-1.7) 0.02 1.5 (1.1-2.1)   
Fibrinogen, g/l† 0.0002 9.5 (3.0-31) 0.02 10.2 (1.6-70) 0.0005 19.9 (3.8-110)
α-1 antitrypsin, g/l 0.002 3.1 (1.5-5.8)    0.001 5.1 (2.0-12.0)
Serum amyloid A, mg/l† 0.01 1.4 (1.1-1.8) 0.03 1.5 (1.0-2.1)   
Endothelial markers       
Soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule, ng/l† 0.0005 4.0 (1.8-8.2) 0.004 4.9 (1.7-13.5)   
Von Willebrand factor, %† 0.009 1.9 (1.2-3.0)     
Markers of renal damage       
Cystatin C GFR < 0.0001 0.4 (0.2-0.5) 0.001 0.3 (0.2-0.6) 0.0002 0.3 (0.2-0.5)
Cystatin C† < 0.0001 4.4 (2.4-7.9) 0.0009 5.3 (2.0-13) 0.0002 5.7 (2.4-12.8)
Creatinine 0.003 1.1 (1.0-1.1) 0.02 4.1 (1.3-10.2) 0.003 4.3 (1.7-9.2)
Urea, mmol/l† 0.01 2.1 (1.2-3.2)    0.02 2.3 (1.1-4.0)
Pathologic urine 0.04 2.2 (1.0-4.4)    0.04 3.5 (1.1-8.1)
  1. Only variables with P-values ≤ 0.05 in either group are presented. Calculations were done using age-adjusted Cox regression. †Calculations on log transformed values. Any aPL¶, any antiphospholipid antibody, positive antibody against cardiolipin IgG/IgM at medium titer, beta2glykoprotein-1 or a positive lupus anticoagulant test. Hypertension, systolic blood pressure > 140 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure > 90 mmHg and/or treatment for hypertension; hypercholesterolemia, total cholesterol level > 5.2 mmol/L; established arterial disease, history of myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, ischemic cerebrovascular disease, ischemic peripheral arterial disease at baseline; SCORE, systematic coronary risk evaluation calculated on 124 patients 40 to 65 years old; SLICC, systemic lupus international collaborating clinics; pathologic urine, as defined by the systemic lupus activity measure (SLAM); OM, overall mortality; CVM, cardiovascular mortality; N-VM, non-vascular mortality. HR, hazard ratio