IL-17-producing CD4+ T cells in PBMCs and minor salivary glands of patients with SS and controls. (a) After the isolation of PBMCs from healthy controls (n = 5) and patients with SS (n = 5), the populations of IL-17-producing CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and non-T cells were analyzed by using antibodies specific for CD4, CD8, and IL-17 by intracellular flow cytometric analysis. The representative figure is shown in the left panel. The percentage of IL-17-producing CD4+ T cells is shown in the right panel. *P < 0.05, compared with healthy controls. (b) Salivary gland tissues from patients with SS or disease controls were stained for IL-17-producing CD4+ T cells by using antibodies specific for IL-17 (green) and CD4 (red). The population of IL-17-producing CD4+ T cells was analyzed by using laser confocal microscopy (400×). Cells showing positive IL-17-producing CD4+ T cells staining were enumerated visually at higher magnification (projected on a screen) by four individuals, and the mean values are presented in the form of a histogram. *P < 0.05, compared with disease controls. IL, interleukin; PBMC, peripheral blood mononuclear cell; SS, Sjögren's syndrome.