Increased expressions of STAT3, P -STAT3, IκB, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α in minor salivary glands of patients with SS. (a) The expressions of STAT3, phospho-STAT3 (P-STAT3), phosphor-IκB (P-IκB), IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β in minor salivary glands of patients with SS (upper panel) and disease controls (lower panel). Immunostaining was performed by using specific antibodies in patients with SS (n = 16) and disease controls (n = 5). Cells stained with each antibody are shown in brown. Intense stainings of STAT3, P-STAT3, P-IκB, IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β are observed in the infiltrating mononuclear cells in patients with SS, whereas isotype control did not show any immunoreactivity. Expressions of STAT3, P-STAT3, P-IκB, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α in the disease controls are quite weak in comparison with those in patients with SS. Representative results are shown. (b) The cells showing positive staining were enumerated visually at higher magnification (projected on a screen) by four individuals, and the mean values are presented in the form of a histogram. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01 compared with disease controls. IL, interleukin; P-IκB, phospho-IκB; SS, Sjögren's syndrome; STAT, signal transducer and activator of transcription; TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor-alpha.