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Table 2 Th1 and Th2 cytokine levels during pregnancy in 56 healthy women and 46 SLE patients

From: Effect of pregnancy on serum cytokines in SLE patients

  Healthy women   SLE patients  
  1st trimester 3rd trimester P= 1st trimester 3rd trimester P=
TNF-α 11.5 (1.4 to 104.6) 10.2 (0.7 to 72.9) 0.001 13.5 (0 to 210.5) 11.0 (0 to 174.5) n.s.
IFN-γ 3.4 (0 to 29.0) 2.0 (0.1 to 55.5) 0.001 2.8 (0 to 75.0) 3.0 (0 to 38.2) n.s.
IL-1α 1.1 (0 to 13.2) 0.9 (0 to 12.8) 0.003 1.0 (0 to 56.6) 1.0 (0 to 27.5) 0.006
IL-1β 1.0 (0 to 10.3) 0.6 (0 to 70.8) 0.018 0.8 (0 to 35.2) 0.5 (0 to 18.4) n.s.
IL-2 3.5 (0 to 39.8) 3.0 (0 to 206) 0.018 4.5 (0 to 122.4) 4.1 (0 to 40.3) n.s.
IL-8 5.2 (0.9 to 112.6) 4.4 (0.9 to 145.9) 0.053 7.4 (0 to 910.9) 4.6 (0 to 717.1) n.s.
IL-12 5.6 (0.1 to 70.6) 4.9 (0 to 29.4) 0.018 6.0 (0 to 186.5) 4.2 (0 to 105.7) n.s.
IL-10 1.3 (0 to 45.0) 1.1 (0 to 19.1) n.s. 2.9 (0 to 124.1) 3.1 (0 to 73.6) n.s.
IL-6 5.5 (1.8 to 10.4) 4.8 (2.2 to 9.2) n.s. 6.3 (3.5 to 22.6) 7.3 (3.7 to 23.1) n.s.
  1. IFN-γ, interferon gamma; IL, interleukin; n.s., not significant; TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor alpha. The median values (25th to 75th percentile) are expressed in pg/ml. Differences between the median cytokine serum levels in the first and third trimester were statistically evaluated by Wilcoxon test for paired data (significant P-value < 0.05).