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Table 1 Baseline characteristics and atherosclerosis in Caucasian and black women with RA

From: Obesity and carotid atherosclerosis in African black and Caucasian women with established rheumatoid arthritis: a cross-sectional study

Characteristic Caucasian women (n= 95) Black women (n= 108) P a
Sociodemographics    
   Age, years 57.5 (11.7) 55.4 (10.0) ...
   Public healthcare (%) 18.9 97.2 ...
Lifestyle factors    
   Pack year history smoking, n 2.4 (5.0) 0.1 (1.5) 0.003
   Current smoking (%) 9.6 1.9 0.04
   Never smoking (%) 90.7 58.5 0.01
   Former smoking (%) 31.9 8.4 0.01
   Alcohol use (%) 34.0 1.9 < 0.0001
   Exercise, hours per weekb, n 0.7 (2.1) 0.6 (1.9) 0.04
Blood pressure    
   Systolic blood pressure, mmHg 128 (17) 140 (24) 0.5
   Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg 78 (9) 85 (15) 0.1
Lipids    
   Total cholesterol, mmol/l 5.1 (1.0) 4.7 (0.9) 0.02
   LDL cholesterol, mmol/l 2.8 (0.9) 2.6 (0.8) 0.5
   HDL cholesterolb, mmol/l 1.7 (1.3) 1.5 (1.3) 0.002
   Cholesterol÷HDL cholesterol 3.1 (1.0) 3.3 (1.1) 0.1
   Triglyceridesb, mmol/l 1.1 (1.5) 1.1 (1.7) 0.8
   Triglycerides÷HDL cholesterolb 0.6 (1.8) 0.7 (2.1) 0.1
   Non-HDL cholesterol 3.3 (1.0) 3.2 (0.9) 0.5
Glucoseb, mmol/l 4.7 (1.2) 5.2 (1.4) 0.02
Diabetes mellitus (%) 4.2 16.7 0.3
RA characteristics    
   Disease duration, years 12.7 (9.1) 14.8 (9.4) 0.6
   Rheumatoid factor positive (%) 73.4 75.9 0.8
   DAS28 3.5 (1.5) 4.1 (1.3) 0.5
   Deformed jointsb, n 4 (4) 7 (3) 0.05
   Prednisone use ever (%) 43.2 42.6 0.08
   Current prednisone use (%) 4.2 1.9 0.07
   Current DMARD, n 2.1 (0.9) 2.5 (1.0) 0.4
   Current methotrexate use (%) 77.9 91.7 0.9
   Current chloroquine use (%) 47.4 77.8 0.2
Systemic inflammation    
   Erythrocyte sedimentation rateb, mm/hr 7 (3) 21 (3) 0.007
   C-reactive proteinb, mg/l 3.9 (3.6) 7.5 (3.1) 0.5
Cardiovascular drugs    
   Antihypertensive agent use (%) 43.2 55.6 0.07
   Oral glucose lowering agent use (%) 4.2 13.9 0.03
   Insulin use (%) 1.1 2.0 0.6
   Statin use (%) 36.8 18.5 0.03
   Ezetimibe use (%) 2.1 0 ...
Other    
   Education, years 12.7 (2.7) 7.5 (4.1) 0.002
   Hypothyroidismc (%) 34.7 6.5 0.2
   Hormone replacement therapy (%) 17.9 5.6 0.8
Atherosclerosis    
   cIMT, mm 0.689 (0.117) 0.691 (0.099) 0.6
   Plaque (%) 36.8 35.2 0.5
  1. Results are expressed as mean (SD) or proportions/percentages. aP for comparison between black and Caucasian women with RA after adjustment for age and healthcare as well as lipid lowering and antihypertensive agents in models that include lipid and blood pressure variables, respectively; bnon-normally distributed variable for which geometric mean (SD) is given; c includes subclinical and overt hypothyroidism and diagnosed when serum thyrotropin level was > 4.94 mU/L or when thyroid hormone replacement therapy was used. cIMT, common carotid artery intima-thickness; DAS28, Disease Activity Score in 28 joints; DMARD, disease modifying agents for rheumatic disease; n, number of; RA, rheumatoid arthritis.