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Table 1 Serum cytokine levels in Staphylococcus aureus-infected mice treated with estradiol or placebo and in uninfected, ovariectomized control mice

From: Estradiol ameliorates arthritis and protects against systemic bone loss in Staphylococcus aureus infection in mice

   S. aureusinfected  
Cytokinea Uninfected
(n= 12)
Placebo
(n= 9)
Estradiol
(n= 8)
IL-10 16.8 (16.8-16.8) 8.4 (8.4-16.8) 18.2 (12.6-172.4)bc
TNF-α 5.7 (3.9-8.7) 18.4 (15.0-23.6)d 20.4 (15.0-32.1)
IL-6 3.3 (1.7-92.3) 49.4 (24.6-454.8) 49.3 (13.3-617.0)
IFN-γ 1.2 (0.5-1.5) 1.6 (1.5-2.4) 2.0 (1.1-3.8)
IL-17A 1.2 (0.8-1.7) 1.8 (1.6-3.0) 2.6 (1.3-8.0)
  1. aValues in pictograms per milliliter are given as medians (interquartile ranges). All mice were ovariectomized. Uninfected mice were treated with placebo. Infected mice were killed at day 14 after bacterial inoculation. bP < 0.05, as compared with infected, placebo-treated mice. cP < 0.01; dP < 0.001, as compared with uninfected controls. Statistical analyses were done with the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Dunn multiple-comparison test.