Adiponectin mRNA regulation. (a) Confluent human skin fibroblasts (SFs) or subcutaneous preadipocytes (PAs) were incubated with 10 μM pioglitazone (Pio) for 48 hours, and RNA was examined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The results, normalized with glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase mRNA levels, represent the mean ± standard deviation of triplicate determinations. (b) Adiponectin mRNA levels in systemic sclerosis skin biopsies. The data were extracted from published genome-wide expression microarray datasets . Levels were correlated with modified Rodnan skin score (MRSS).