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Table 1 Characteristics of 204 patients with ankylosing spondylitis in western Sweden

From: Osteoporosis in ankylosing spondylitis - prevalence, risk factors and methods of assessment

   Patients,
number (%)
Median (range) Mean ± SD
Demographic variables    
Sex Women 87 (43)   
  Men 117 (57)   
Age, years NA 49 (17 to 78) 50 ± 13
Postmenopausal women 45/87 (52)   
Heredity for fractures 57 (28)   
History of vertebral fracture 3 (1)   
History of non-vertebral fracture 18 (9)   
Current smokers 24 (12)   
Ever smoked > 6 months 101 (50)   
Daily calcium intake from dairy products NA 600 (0 to 2,640) 668 ± 397
BMI, kg/m2   25 (19 to 46) 26 ± 4
LTPAI total, hours   6 (0 to 42) 7 ± 6
PAHWI total, hours   45 (0 to 160) 40 ± 21
FRAX major osteoporotic fracture (%)
(patients ≥ 40 years)
  6.7 (1.2 to 68.0) 9.9 ± 9.7
FRAX hip fracture (%)
(patients ≥ 40 years)
  0.8 (0 to 56.0) 2.4 ± 6.0
Disease-related variables    
Years since onset of symptoms   24 (2 to 55) 24 ± 13
Years since diagnosis   12 (1 to 47) 15 ± 11
History of anterior uveitis 102 (50)   
History of peripheral arthritis 120 (59)   
History of coxitis 17 (8)   
BASMI, score   3.0 (0.6 to 7.4) 3.1 ± 1.6
BASDAI, score   3.5 (0.0 to 9.6) 3.6 ± 2.1
BASFI, score   2.3 (0.0 to 8.7) 2.7 ± 2.1
BAS-G1, score (last week)   2.9 (0.0 to 10.0) 3.4 ± 2.6
BAS-G2, score (last 6 months)   3.4 (0.0 to 9.7) 3.8 ± 2.6
ASDAS, score   2.3 (0.8 to 5.9) 2.4 ± 0.9
mSASSS, score   5.5 (0.0 to 72.0) 14.2 ± 19.2
Mean ESR, mm/h (2004 to 2008)   16 (2 to 102) 19 ± 15
ESR, mm/h (at inclusion 2009)   11 (2 to 105) 15 ± 14
CRP, mg/L   5 (3 to 80) 9 ± 10
Hemoglobin, g/L   139 (105 to 166) 139 ± 13
WBC, × 109/L   6.7 (2.7 to 18.1) 7.0 ± 2.1
PLT, × 109/L   287 (133 to 506) 299 ± 75
Creatinine, μmol/L   70 (43 to 148) 71 ± 15
HLA-B27 positive 178 (87)   
Patients on NSAID 158 (77)   
Patients on DMARD 62 (30)   
Patients on TNF inhibitor 42 (21)   
Patients on GC 7 (3)   
GC lifetime use, mg prednisone NA 100 (0, 56390) 1397 ± 5775
Patients on bisphosphonates 8 (4)   
Patients on HRT 5 (2)   
Patients on calcium and vitamin D 24 (12)   
Bone mineral density    
aBMD AP lumbar spine, g/cm2   1.02 (0.63 to 1.54) 1.02 ± 0.17
aBMD lateral lumbar spine, g/cm2   0.72 (0.32 to 1.13) 0.73 ± 0.14
vBMD lumbar spine, g/cm3   0.19 (0.09 to 0.27) 0.19 ± 0.03
BMD total hip, g/cm2   0.93 (0.54 to 1.42) 0.94 ± 0.14
BMD femoral neck, g/cm2   0.78 (0.48 to 1.20) 0.78 ± 0.13
BMD radius total, g/cm2   0.61 (0.40 to 0.78) 0.61 ± 0.08
  1. BMI, body mass index; LTPAI, Leisure Time Physical Activity Instrument; PAHWI, Physical Activity at Home and Work Instrument; FRAX, World Health Organization Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (% 10 year probability of major osteoporotic, and vertebral fracture respectively, corresponding to patients aged 40 years or older); BASMI, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index; BASDAI, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index; BASFI, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index; BAS-G1 and G2, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Patient Global Score; ASDAS, ankylosing spondylitis disease activity score; mSASSS, modified Stoke Ankylosing Spondylitis Spine Score; ESR, erythrocyte sedimentation rate; CRP, C-reactive protein; PLT, platelet count; WBC, white blood cell count; NSAID, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug; DMARD, disease modifying anti-rheumatic drug; TNF, tumour necrosis factor; GC, glucocorticoid; HRT, hormone replacement therapy; aBMD, areal bone mineral density; AP, anteroposterior; vBMD, volumetric BMD