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Table 1 Summary of additional medication, clinical and serologic characteristics of the analyzed lupus patients

From: Mycophenolic acid counteracts B cell proliferation and plasmablast formation in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

  AZA MMF No IS
  n= 30 % n= 39 % n= 38 %
Medication a       
Prednisone 26 87 38 97 14 37
mg/day, median (range) 5.0 (0-50) §§§   5.0 (0-30)###   0 (0-20)§§§ ###  
Hydroxychloroquine 17 57 26 67 29 76
Manifestations a       
Nephritis 20 67 35 90 13 34
   Proliferative class III, IV of all biopsy results available 12 75 22 76 3 38
   CRF grade III+ 5 25 6 17 1 8
   Nephritis in remission 9 45 20 57 7 58
   Active nephritis 11 55 15 43 6 46
   New nephritis 1 5 0 0 6 46
Arthritis 3 10 2 5 9 24
Serositis 1 3 0 0 4 11
Myositis 2 7 1 3 0 0
CNS 1 3 0 0 1 3
Vasculitis 1 3 1 3 1 3
Flares a 14 47 9 23 12 32
   Lupus nephritis flare 10 71 4 44 6 50
   CNS flare 0 0 0 0 1 3
   Arthritis flare 0 0 2 22 5 42
   Serositis flare 2 14 0 0 3 8
   Myositis flare 1 7 1 11 0 0
   Vasculitis flare 0 0 1 11 0 0
   Ref. thrombocytopenia 0 0 1 11 0 0
   ILD flare 1 7 0 0 0 0
Autoantibodies a       
   Anti-dsDNA 27 90 36 92 28 74
   C median, U/ml (range) 39 (0-1,250)   29 (0-1,065)   32 (0-1,496)  
   Anti-Ro 17 57 16 41 24 65
   Anti-La 8 27 6 15 10 27
   Anti-U1RNP 11 37 14 36 20 54
   Anti-SM 6 20 6 15 8 22
   APLA/LA 10 33 14 38b 9 28b
Consumption of complement factors a 15 50 16 41 15 39
SLEDAI       
   Median (range) 6 (0-18)   4 (0-14)   4 (0-24)  
  1. Results are presented as number and percent of patients unless otherwise stated. aResulting in an intensification of the immunosuppressive therapy (> 50mg prednisone-equivalent added, or switch of the therapy regimen to a more potent regimen, such as cyclophosphamide). AZA, azathioprine; MMF, mycophenolate mophetil; IS, immunosuppression; CRF, chronic renal failure; CNS, central nervous system; ILD, interstitial lung disease; APLA, anti-phospholipid antibodies; LA, lupus anticoagulant; SLEDAI, SLE disease activity index. bData incomplete (antibody status known in 37 and 32 patients respectively). Statistically significant differences detected between the dose of prednisone-equivalent, Dunn's Multiple Comparison test: #P < 0.05, ##P < 0.01, ###P < 0.001 statistically significant differences between patients taking MMF compared to patients without immunosuppressive therapy (no IS). §P < 0.05, §§P < 0.01, §§§P < 0.001 for statistically significant differences between patients taking AZA compared to patients without immunosuppressive therapy.