Overexpression of transgene-derived interleukin-32 alpha (IL-32α) in transgenic (Tg) mice. Levels of transgene-derived human IL-32α mRNA in various organs were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. IL-32α mRNA expression was prominent in knee joints and heart (a). Transgene-derived IL-32α protein was not detected in serum from Tg mice (b) but was detected in multiple organs (c). Levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) mRNA constitutively expressed in various organs were analyzed for Tg and wild-type (Wt) mice. The relative quantities of Tg were divided by those of Wt of each organ and that ratio is graphed (d). In particular, TNFα expression levels in colon and knee joint of Tg mice corresponded to six- to seven-fold those of their littermates. The values are expressed as the mean ± standard deviation for four different mice. GAPDH, glyceraldhyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.