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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the rheumatoid arthritis patients included in the study*

From: Anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy improves insulin resistance, beta cell function and insulin signaling in active rheumatoid arthritis patients with high insulin resistance

   Insulin resistance  
  All patients (n= 61) Low †
(n= 31)
High †
(n= 30)
Pvalue #
Age (years) 60 (57, 63) 58 (54, 63) 62 (58, 67) 0.157
Gender (% female) 70 74 63 0.360
Disease duration (years) 7.2 (5.6, 9.3) 6.9 (4.8, 10.1) 7.5 (5.2, 10.9) 0.727
DAS28 5.8 (5.5, 6.1) 5.4 (5.1, 5.8) 6.3 (5.8, 6.7) 0.011
HAQ 1.0 (0.8, 1.2) 0.9 (0.6, 1.1) 1.1 (0.9, 1.4) 0.129
C-reactive protein (mg/dl) 1.4 (0.8, 2.1) 1.2 (0.2, 2.1) 1.7 (0.7, 2.6) 0.134
ESR (mm/hr) 35 (29, 40) 33 (24, 42) 36 (28, 44) 0.559
Insulin (μIU/ml) 13.5 (10.4, 17.4) 7.0 (5.1, 9.5) 26.7 (21.0, 33.8) < 0.001
FBG (mg/dl) 96 (89, 103) 87 (80, 93) 107 (95, 119) < 0.001
HOMA-IR § 3.2 (2.4, 4.3) 1.5 (1.1, 2.0) 7.0 (5.2, 9.4) < 0.001
HOMA-B § 159 (122, 207) 123 (77, 195) 210 (168, 263) 0.013
QUICKI 0.33 (0.31, 0.34) 0.36 (0.34, 0.39) 0.29 (0.28, 0.30) < 0.001
TC (mg/dl) 221 (206, 235) 226 (204, 247) 216 (195, 236) 0.471
HDL-C (mg/dl) 54 (50, 57) 56 (52, 61) 51 (46, 57) 0.095
LDL-C (mg/dl) 137 (125, 150) 144 (126, 162) 131 (114, 148) 0.278
TC/HDL-C 4.3 (3.9, 4.6) 4.1 (3.7, 4.5) 4.4 (3.9, 4.9) 0.399
LDL-C/HDL-C 2.7 (2.4, 2.9) 2.6 (2.3, 3.0) 2.7 (2.3, 3.1) 0.868
Triglycerides (mg/dl) 151 (132, 171) 129 (105, 152) 175 (144, 206) 0.015
Lpa (mg/dl) 12.8 (9.5, 17.1) 10.1 (6.6, 15.4) 16.4 (10.9, 24.8) 0.130
apoA (mg/dl) 162 (155, 169) 168 (158, 177) 156 (146, 166) 0.079
apoB (mg/dl) 99 (92, 107) 100 (88, 112) 99 (89, 109) 0.762
apoB/apoA 0.63 (0.58, 0.69) 0.61 (0.52, 0.70) 0.66 (0.57, 0.74) 0.364
Homocysteine (μmol/l) 17.5 (15.7, 19.3) 17.8 (15.1, 20.5) 17.2 (14.6, 19.9) 0.584
Body weight (kg) 75 (71, 79) 73 (68, 78) 77 (7, 83) 0.203
Body mass index (kg/m2) 29.1 (27.5, 30.7) 28.6 (26.2, 30.9) 29.7 (27.4, 32.1) 0.371
Waist circumference (cm) 101 (97, 105) 100 (94, 106) 102 (97, 107) 0.207
SBP (mmHg) 127 (123, 131) 125 (118, 132) 130 (125, 134) 0.024
DBP (mmHg) 77 (75, 79) 78 (74, 81) 76 (73, 79) 0.672
Metabolic syndrome (%) ** 41 19 63 0.001
Statin use (%) 19 13 24 0.333
Tobacco use (%) 19 23 14 0.506
Coronary heart disease (%) 14 10 17 0.472
Hypertension (%) 61 58 63 0.795
Antihypertensive therapy (%) 46 48 43 0.799
MTX (%) 69 65 73 0.582
MTX dose (mg/week) 14.8 (14.0, 15.7) 15.9 (14.7, 17.1) 13.9 (12.7, 15.0) 0.033
GC (%) 21 19 23 0.762
GC dose (mg/day) 8.8 (5.6, 12.1) 7.9 (5.3, 10.5) 9.6 (3.0, 16.2) 0.705
  1. * Except where indicated otherwise, values are the mean (95% confidence interval)
  2. † The median Homeostasis Model Assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) value at baseline was used to assign patients into low (HOMA-IR ≤ 3.18, n = 31) or high (HOMA-IR > 3.18, n = 30) insulin resistance group
  3. # P value for the comparison between low and high insulin resistance groups
  4. § Statistical comparisons were performed using log transformed values. Values represent the geometric mean
  5. ** According to the Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III criteria for the definition of the metabolic syndrome
  6. DAS28: disease activity score of 28 joints; HAQ: health assessment questionnaire; ESR: erythrocyte sedimentation rate; FBG: fasting blood glucose; QUICKI: Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index; TC: total cholesterol; HDL-C: high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C: low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; Lpa: lipoprotein a; apo: apolipoprotein; SBP: systolic blood pressure; DBP: diastolic blood pressure; MTX: methotrexate; GC: glucocorticoids.