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Table 1 Energy/ATP-consuming functions of immune cells

From: Energy metabolism and rheumatic diseases: from cell to organism

Function ATP-dependent process References
Housekeeping function   
   Active transport of molecules and ions Na+ K+-ATPase
[1, 79]
   Macromolecule synthesis Protein synthesis
RNA/DNA synthesis
[79, 80]
Specific immune functions   
Motor functions   
   Cytoskeletal rearrangement Actomyosin-ATPase [1, 81]
   Transendothelial migration Rho-GTPase [82]
Antigen processing and presentation   
   Proteasomal protein degradation (for example, 26S) AAA-ATPases [83]
   Antigen processing ATP-binding cassette transporter associated with antigen processing [84]
   Endosomal acidification Vacuolar-type H+-ATPase [85]
Activation functions   
   Ion pumps to restore ion gradients Na+ K+-ATPase
   Macromolecule synthesis Protein synthesis
RNA/DNA synthesis
[79, 80]
Effector functions   
   Perforin-based cytoxicity Vacuolar-type H+-ATPase [86]
   Macrophage bacterial activity Copper-transporting ATPase [87]
   Macrophage membrane permeabilization and inhibition of regulatory T cells Activation of purinergic receptor P2X7 by extracellular ATPe [88, 89]
  1. Data taken from [1].