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Table 2 Representative approaches that indirectly target B cells by blocking cytokine signaling

From: Rationale of anti-CD19 immunotherapy: an option to target autoreactive plasma cells in autoimmunity

Target Agent Mechanism of action (B cells) Developmental status
BAFF/BLyS Belimumab (Anti-BlyS) Partial B-cell depletion Approved for SLE
BAFF and APRIL Atacicept (TACI-Ig)   Phase I/II for RA, phase II/III for SLE
TNFα/lymphotoxin-β Etanercept Disruption of germinal centers Approved for RA, SpA, JIA and PsA
IL-6 receptor Tocilizumab Blocks of B-cell and plasma cell differentiation Approved for RA, JIA and Castleman's disease, phase I for SLE reported
Type I interferon MEDI 545 Blocks plasma cell production Phase II for SLE
  RhuMAb IFNα   Phase II for SLE
  1. APRIL, a proliferation-inducing ligand; BAFF, B-cell activating factor; JIA, juvenile idiopathic arthritis; RA, rheumatoid arthritis; SLE, systemic lupus erythematosus; PsA, psoriatic arthritis; SpA, spondyloarthritis; TACI, transmembrane activator and calcium modulator and cyclophilin ligand interactor.