Urine vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 levels in other nephropathies. Urine vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) levels were assayed and creatinine (Cr)-normalized using urine samples from patients with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies-associated (ANCA) glomerulonephritis, patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), patients with minimal-change disease (MCD) and patients with membranous nephropathy (MN), as plotted. The basal levels in the healthy controls are represented by the dotted line (HC). The data for the healthy controls and the lupus nephritis patients are drawn from the data shown in Figure 2C. The VCAM-1 levels noted in the different groups are statistically compared with the lupus nephritis group, as indicated below the x axis label. NS, not significant; SLE, systemic lupus erythematosus.