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Table 1 Summary of growth factors contained in platelet-rich plasma [64, 77, 78]

From: Platelet-rich plasma therapy - future or trend?

Growth factor Function
Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) Stimulates undifferentiated mesenchymal cell proliferation
  Regulates endothelial, fibroblastic, and osteoblastic mitogenesis
  Regulates collagen synthesis and collagenase secretion
  Regulates mitogenic effects of other growth factors
  Stimulates endothelial chemotaxis and angiogenesis
  Inhibits macrophage and lymphocyte proliferation
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) Promotes growth and differentiation of chondrocytes and osteoblasts
  Mitogenetic for mesenchymal cells, chondrocytes, and osteoblasts
Platelet-derived growth factor a and b (PDGF) Mitogenetic for mesenchymal cells and osteoblasts
  Stimulates chemotaxis and mitogenesis in fibroblast, glial, or smooth muscle cells
  Regulates collagenase secretion and collagen synthesis
  Stimulates macrophage and neutrophil chemotaxis
Epidermal growth factor (EGF) Stimulates endothelial chemotaxis or angiogenesis
  Regulates collagenase secretion
  Stimulates epithelial or mesenchymal mitogenesis
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) Increases angiogenesis and vessel permeability
  Stimulates mitogenesis for endothelial cells
Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) Promotes angiogenesis
  Cartilage regeneration
  Fibrosis and platelet adhesion
Insulin like growth factor (ILGF 1 and 2) Chemotactic for fibroblasts and stimulates protein synthesis
  Enhances bone formation
Platelet factor 4 (PF-4) Stimulate the initial influx of neutrophils into wounds
  Chemo-attractant for fibroblasts
Interleukin 8 (IL-8) Pro-inflammatory mediator
  Recruitment of inflammatory cells
Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) Promote endothelial cell growth, migration, adhesion and survival
  Angiogenesis