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Table 1 Characteristics of Medicare diabetes patients with and without RA (N = 256,331)

From: Monitoring diabetes in patients with and without rheumatoid arthritis: a Medicare study

Characteristic DM + RA
(n = 5,572)
DM no RA (n = 250,759) P-value
Sociodemographics, n (%)
Age 65 to 74 years 3,056 (54.9) 136,288 (54.4) 0.47
  75 to 84 years 2,124 (38.1) 95,540 (38.1) 1
  85+ years 392 (7.0) 18,931 (7.6) 0.16
Female   4,164 (74.7) 151,846 (60.6) <0.01
Race/ethnicity White 4,318 (77.5) 207,565 (82.8) <0.01
  Black 716 (12.9) 26,495 (10.6) <0.01
  Other 538 (9.7) 16,699 (6.7) <0.01
Medicaid   1,480 (26.6) 46,944 (18.7) <0.01
RUCA category Urban 3,936 (71.8) 164,742 (66.4) <0.01
  Suburban 407 (7.4) 23,007 (9.3) <0.01
  Large town 554 (10.1) 31,229 (12.6) <0.01
  Small town 586 (10.7) 29,033 (11.7) <0.01
Baseline cardiovascular profile, n (%)
Myocardial infarction 266 (4.8) 11,146 (4.4) 0.24
Ischemic heart disease 3,237 (58.0) 126,690 (50.5) <0.01
Congestive heart failure 2,063 (37.0) 73,057 (29.1) <0.01
Stroke/Transient ischemic attack 793 (14.2) 31,971 (12.8) <0.01
Hyperlipidemia 4,151 (74.5) 190,713 (76.1) <0.01
Baseline diabetes complication profile, n (%)
Peripheral vascular disease 2,410 (43.3) 82,440 (32.9) <0.01
Chronic kidney disease 952 (17.1) 35,984 (14.4) <0.01
Lower extremity ulcers 703 (12.6) 17,815 (7.1) <0.01
Amputation 50 (0.9) 1,587 (0.6) <0.05
Diabetic eye disease 765 (13.7) 40,417 (16.1) <0.01
Other comorbidity and baseline utilization measures
Orthopedic surgery, n (%) 1,452 (26.1) 32,121 (12.8) <0.01
Gait device, n (%) 492 (8.8) 12,768 (5.1) <0.01
HCC score, mean (SD) 1.55 (1.04) 0.82 (0.80) <0.01
Hospitalization 2004 to 2006, n (%) 3,379 (60.6) 125,168 (49.9) <0.01
Total unique providers, three-year mean (SD) 8.8 (5.7) 6.3 (4.0) <0.01
Total outpatient visits, annual mean (SD) 14.7 (9.3) 9.6 (6.7) <0.01
  PCP visits, annual mean (SD) 7.0 (5.9) 5.3 (4.0) <0.01
  Rheumatology visits, annual mean (SD) 2.0 (3.1) 0.1 (0.5) <0.01
  Other specialty visits, annual mean (SD) 5.6 (5.8) 4.1 (4.7) <0.01
  1. DM, Diabetes mellitus; HCC, Hierarchical Condition Categories; PCP, Primary care provider; RA, Rheumatoid arthritis; RUCA, Rural Urban Commuting Area; SD, Standard deviation