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Table 1 Proportion of pediatric patients with lupus nephritis-associated ESRD who received renal biopsies and medications prior to ESRD

From: Variation in renal biopsy and medication prescribing practices among pediatric Medicaid patients with lupus nephritis prior to end-stage renal disease in the US, 2000 to 2004

   Renal biopsy Corticosteroids HCQ Immunosuppressants
   n (%) P valuea n (%) P valuea n (%) P valuea n (%) P valuea
Total 254         
Sex          
   Female 182 89 (49) 0.15 167 (92) 0.47 117 (64) 0.38 121 (66) 0.85
   Male 72 28 (39)   64 (89)   42 (58)   47 (65)  
Race/ethnicity          
   White 25 14 (56) 0.52 22 (88) 0.19 11 (44) 1 × 106 13 (52) 0.02
   Black 155 74 (48)   139 (90)   91 (59)   103 (66)  
   Hispanic 48 21 (44)   47 (98)   44 (92)   34 (71)  
   Asian 17 -   16 (94)   -   15 (88)  
   Native - -   -   -   -  
SES group          
   Quartile 1 - lowest 63 37 (59) 0.02b 60 (95) 0.21b 36 (57) 0.33b 42 (67) 0.95b
   Quartile 2 63 27 (43)   56 (89)   41 (65)   42 (67)  
   Quartile 3 63 29 (46)   58 (92)   39 (62)   42 (67)  
   Quartile 4 - highest 64 23 (36)   56 (88)   43 (67)   42 (66)  
Region of residence          
   Northeast 35 10 (29) 0.09 30 (86) 0.004 22 (63) 0.01 30 (58) 0.53
   Midwest 52 26 (50)   43 (83)   23 (44)   23 (66)  
   South 123 63 (51)   120 (98)   81 (66)   85 (69)  
   West 44 18 (41)   38 (86)   33 (75)   30 (68)  
Residence in health professional shortage area          
   Not HPSA 13 - 0.78 13 (100) 0.48 - 0.09 11 (85) 0.12
   HPSA 240 110 (46)   217 (90)   151 (63)   157 (65)  
Pediatric rheumatologist per state          
   Quartile 1 - lowest 63 38 (60) 0.0002b 59 (94) 0.24b 35 (56) 0.02b 43 (68) 0.50b
   Quartile 2 64 34 (53)   62 (97)   37 (58)   46 (72)  
   Quartile 3 72 30 (42)   63 (88)   46 (64)   42 (58)  
   Quartile 4 - highest 55 15 (27)   47 (85)   41 (75)   37 (67)  
  1. -, cell sizes under 11 have been suppressed in accordance with Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services policy to protect privacy. aP value for chi-square tests and Fisher's exact tests for small cell counts. bP value for Cochran-Armitage Trend tests.