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Table 1 Demographics and clinical characteristics of patients used for the serum and urine biomarker validation studies

From: Inflammation associated anemia and ferritin as disease markers in SLE

  Serum1 Urine1
No. 28 27
Female, no. (%) 25 (89.3) 21 (77.8)
Age, mean +/- SE, years 37.3 ± 1.8 34.6 ± 2.3
Race, African American/Hispanic/Caucasian, no. 17/8/2 13/12/1
SLEDAI, median (interquartile) 10 (3 to 16) 10 (2 to 16)
Renal SLEDAI, median (interquartile) 5 (0 to 8) 5 (0 to 8)
No. of patients with renal SLEDAI = 0 (%) 10 (35.7) 9 (33.3)
Protein:creatinine ratio, mg/mg, mean +/- SE 2.0 ± 0.5 2.3 ± 0.5
Serum Cr, mg/dl, mean +/- SE 1.3 ± 0.2 1.4 ± 0.2
Comorbidities, no. (%)   
Diabetes Melitus 3 (10.7) 4 (14.8)
Hypertension 20 (71.4) 20 (74.1)
Dyslipidemia 12 (42.8) 15 (55.6)
Cardiovascular disease 4 (14.3) 3 (11.1)
Anemia 16 (57.1) 18 (66.7)
Antiphospholipid syndrome 3 (10.7) 3 (11.1)
Venous thromboembolism 3 (10.7) 3 (11.1)
Others 14 (50%) 11 (40.7)
Current medications, no. (%)   
Prednisone 17 (60.7) 20 (74)
Mycophenolic acid 7 (25) 7 (25.9)
Cyclophosphamide 1 (3.6) 2 (7.4)
Azathioprine/MTX 6 (21.4) 3 (11.1)
Cyclosporine/Tacrolimus 2 (7.1) 1 (3.7)
   Hydrochloroquine 12 (42.9) 11 (40.7)
Angiotensin blocking agents 14 (50) 16 (59.3)
  1. 1Note that 16 SLE patients had provided both serum and urine samples.