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Table 2 Descriptive data of study population (n = 105)

From: Biomechanical factors and physical examination findings in osteoarthritis of the knee: associations with tissue abnormalities assessed by conventional radiography and high-resolution 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging

  Mean ± SD n(%)
Demographics   
Age (years) 61.4 ± 6.9  
Gender (female)   73 (70)
Duration of knee complaints (years) 11.3 ± 9.3  
Body mass index (kg/m2) 29.1 ± 4.7  
Radiographic severitya   
K-L score 0/1   32 (31)
   K-L score 2   28 (27)
   K-L score 3   26 (25)
   K-L score 4   19 (18)
Pain severity (NRS, 0 to 10) 5.1 ± 2.1  
Biomechanical factors   
Quadriceps muscle strength (Nm/kg)a 0.89 ± 0.47  
Hamstrings muscle strength (Nm/kg)a 0.61 ± 0.26  
Proprioceptive accuracy (degrees)a 2.9 ± 1.9  
Varus-valgus laxity (degrees)a 6.9 ± 2.8  
Physical examination findings   
Bony tenderness (yes)a   75 (71)
Crepitus (yes)a   86 (82)
Bony enlargement (yes)a   12 (11)
Palpable warmth (yes)a   4 (4)
Tissue abnormalities, detected by CR Median (range) n
Joint space widtha   
   MTF (0, 1, 2, 3)b   5, 29, 31, 40
   LTF (0, 1, 2, 3)b   68, 20, 10, 7
   PF (0, 1, 2, 3)b   31, 44, 22, 8
Osteophytesa   
   MTF (0, 1, 2, 3)c   21, 57, 24, 3
   LTF (0, 1, 2, 3)c   43, 49, 11, 2
   PF (0, 1, 2, 3)c   11, 67, 25, 2
Tissue abnormalities, detected by MRI   
Cartilage integritya   
   MTF (0 to 6) 4 (0 to 6)  
   LTF (0 to 6) 2 (0 to 6)  
   PF (0 to 12) 2 (0 to 12)  
Osteophytesa   
   MTF (0 to 9) 3 (0 to 9)  
   LTF (0 to 9) 2 (0 to 9)  
   PF (0 to 18) 5 (0 to 12)  
Bone marrow lesionsa   
   MTF (0 to 6) 1 (0 to 6)  
   LTF (0 to 6) 0 (0 to 6)  
   PF (0 to 12) 0 (0 to 8)  
Effusion (0, 1, 2, 3)a,d   34, 31, 27, 13
Synovitisa presence, n (%)   
   In at least one region   36 (34)
   In Hoffa's fat pad   31 (30)
   In medial posterior-condylar region   13 (12)
   In lateral posterior-condylar region   12 (11)
   In medial recess   6 (6)
   In lateral recess   7 (7)
  1. CR, conventional radiography; K-L, Kellgren-Lawrence; LTF, lateral tibiofemoral compartment; MRI, magnetic resonance imaging; MTF, medial tibiofemoral compartment; NRS: numeric rating scale; PF, patellafemoral compartment; SD, standard deviation. aData from index knee. b0 = none, 1 = minute narrowing (0 to 33%); 2 = definite narrowing (33 to 66%); 3 = ankylosis (66 to 99%). c0 = none, 1 = minute, 2 = definite, 3 = large. d0 = none, 1 = mild; 2 = moderate; 3 = severe.