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Table 4 Comparison between poor and good sleepers (sorted by P value)

From: Sleep disturbances are associated with increased pain, disease activity, depression, and anxiety in ankylosing spondylitis: a case-control study

Variables PSQI ≤7 PSQI >7 P
  n= 203 n= 111  
SDS 44.15 ± 9.44 52.95 ± 9.83 0.000
SAS 45.78 ± 7.07 53.07 ± 7.77 0.000
BASDAI 2.98 ± 1.87 4.66 ± 2.03 0.000
BASFI 1.23 ± 1.83 2.39 ± 2.51 0.000
Nocturnal pain (VAS) 2.89 ± 2.64 5.17 ± 2.94 0.000
Total back pain (VAS) 3.12 ± 2.49 5.18 ± 2.57 0.000
Overall assessment of health (VAS) 4.67 ± 2.79 6.59 ± 2.58 0.000
Morning stiffness (minutes) 9.53 ± 26.48 16.24 ± 29.70 0.002
Age (years) 26.83 ± 8.03 29.70 ± 8.59 0.002
ESR (mm/h) 14.51 ± 15.44 20.98 ± 23.21 0.018
CRP (mg/dl) 1.32 ± 1.65 2.16 ± 5.33 0.039
Years of education 4.46 ± 0.89 4.25 ± 0.98 0.058
BASMI 1.29 ± 1.87 1.59 ± 1.93 0.069
Disease duration (years) 5.70 ± 4.57 6.74 ± 5.40 0.116
Fingertip-to-floor distance (cm) 9.65 ± 13.51 9.99 ± 14.09 0.859
  1. BASDAI, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index; BASFI, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index; BASMI, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index; CRP, C-reactive protein; ESR, erythrocyte sedimentation rate; PSQI, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; SAS, Self-rating Anxiety Scale; SDS, Self-rating Depression Scale; VAS, visual analogue scale.