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Table 6 Hierarchic multiple regression analysis of demographic, medical, and psychological variables in relation to PSQI

From: Sleep disturbances are associated with increased pain, disease activity, depression, and anxiety in ankylosing spondylitis: a case-control study

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
  B Pvalue B Pvalue B Pvalue B Pvalue
Age (years) 0.057 0.122 0.064 0.081 0.032 0.314 0.055 0.103
Gender (male) 0.738 0.108 0.098 0.823 -0.228 0.575 -0.435 0.292
Years of education -0.583 0.011 -0.333 0.105 -0.266 0.181 -0.190 0.318
Student (yes) -1.261 0.083 0.587 0.365 -0.805 0.203 -0.455 0.449
Employment (yes) -1.068 0.078 -1.099 0.043 -0.638 0.225 -0.798 0.112
Married (yes) 0.174 0.788 0.168 0.769 0.010 0.985 0.011 0.984
ESR    0.007 0.535    0.009 0.399
CRP    -0.005 0.941    -0.022 0.706
Disease duration    -0.055 0.230    -0.052 0.214
Morning stiffness (minute)    0.001 0.919    0.001 0.904
Fingertip-to-floor distance (cm)    -0.011 0.481    -0.009 0.531
Overall assessment of health (VAS)    0.029 0.760    -0.039 0.658
Nocturnal pain (VAS)    0.267 0.012    0.258 0.009
Total back pain (VAS)    0.133 0.302    0.168 0.159
BASMI    -0.222 0.100    -0.149 0.233
BASDAI (VAS)    0.456 0.005    0.210 0.168
BASFI (VAS)    -0.067 0.595    -0.157 0.184
SDS      0.064 0.004 0.059 0.008
SAS      0.170 0.000 0.120 0.000
R2 (%) 8.5   32.0   32.4   42.6  
Adjusted R2 (%) 6.7   28.0   30.6   38.9  
  1. Model 1 F = 4.756; P = 0.000; Model 2 F = 8.176; P = 0.000; Model 3 F = 18.290; P = 0.000; Model 4 F = 11.507; P = 0.000. BASDAI, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index; BASFI, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index; BASMI, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index; CRP, C-reactive protein; ESR, erythrocyte sedimentation rate; PSQI, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; SAS, Self-rating Anxiety Scale; SDS, Self-rating Depression Scale; VAS, visual analogue scale.