Y27 treatment of lupus syndromes, and effects on serum antibody and renal histology in MRL/ lpr mice. MRL/lpr mice (10 weeks old) were treated with vehicle control (saline), cyclophosphamide (CYC; 15 mg/kg), or Y27 (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg) (n = 16 per group). The experiment was terminated after 10 weeks of treatment when all MRL/lpr mice treated with vehicle control developed 1+ proteinuria (urine protein > 3 mg/ml). (A) Effect of treatment on mortality over 10 weeks (analyzed by log rank test) and urinary protein levels at 10, 16 and 20 weeks of age. Each symbol represents one mouse. Bars show the mean of the group. (B) Effect of treatment on blood urea nitrogen and triglyceride levels. (C) Anti-double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) antibodies, IgG1and IgG2a levels after Y27 treatment. (D) Y27 attenuation of renal histopathological changes in MRL/lpr mice (HE stain, 100×). For the blinded scoring of glomerular alterations see Materials and methods).*P < 0.05; **P < 0.01 versus MRL/Mp. #P < 0.05; ##P < 0.01 versus MRL/lpr.