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Table 1 Associations between systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-related serologic and clinical features and titer of progranulin (PGRN)

From: Serum progranulin levels are elevated in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, reflecting disease activity

Feature Number Mean PGRN (95% confidence interval) P
   Positive a Negative a  
Serologic featureb Positive/negative    
   Anti-Sm 25/17 111.8 (93.4-130.1) 94.1 (56.5-131.7) 0.381c
   Anti-nRNP 23/12 128.9 (102.7-155.0) 74.9 (53.5-96.3) 0.002c
   Anti-Ro 26/13 102.7 (79.6-125.8) 105.6 (67.6-143.6) 0.888
   Anti-CL 20/24 112.4 (84.0-140.8) 87.4 (65.2-109.6) 0.150
Clinical featuresd     
   0 22 51.3 (34.5-68.1) <0.001ef
   1-2 31 91.8 (81.1-102.5) <0.001e
   3-8 15 132.3 (113.1-151.5) 0.005g
  1. anti-Sm, anti-Smith antibody; anti-nRNP, anti-ribonucleoprotein antibody; anti-Ro, anti-Ro/SS-A antibody; anti-CL, anti-cardiolipin antibody. aSLE patients with (present) or without (absent) the clinical features of SLE. bSeveral observations with missing values. cWelch t test. dNumber of positive clinical features including malar rash/discoid rash, alopecia, oral or nasal ulcers, serositis, arthritis, active nephritis, CNS (central nervous system) lupus, vasculitis, temperature >38°C, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, anemia. eAs compared with three to eight clinical features (one-way analysis of variance followed by the Bonferroni test). fAs compared with one to two clinical features (one-way analysis of variance followed by the Bonferroni test). gP for trend.
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