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Table 5 Multivariable-adjusted* predictors of use of opioid pain medications after primary total knee arthroplasty

From: Predictors of use of pain medications for persistent knee pain after primary Total Knee Arthroplasty: a cohort study using an institutional joint registry

  Multivariable-adjusted* analysis, 2-year follow-up Multivariable-adjusted* analysis, 5-year follow-up
  Odds ratio (95% CI) P-value Odds ratio (95% CI) P-value
Male gender (reference female) 0.54 (0.32, 0.92) 0.02a 0.39 (0.18, 0.84) 0.02a
Age (reference ≤ 60 yrs)       
   > 60 to 70 yrs 0.66 (0.36, 1.20) 0.17 0.80 (0.38, 1.70) 0.57
   > 70 to 80 yrs 0.27 (0.13, 0.57) 0.001a 0.34 (0.14, 0.83) 0.02a
> 80 yrs 0.48 (0.19, 1.22) 0.12 0.39 (0.10, 1.57) 0.19
Body mass index (reference < 25 kg/m2)       
   25.0 to 29.9 1.00 (0.46, 2.17) 1.00 0.65 (0.24, 1.74) 0.39
   30.0 to 34.9 1.10 (0.50, 2.44) 0.81 0.88 (0.31, 2.47) 0.80
   35.0 to 39.9 1.25 (0.49, 3.22) 0.64 0.86 (0.29, 2.58) 0.79
   ≥ 40.0 0.54 (0.19, 1.59) 0.27 0.40 (0.10, 1.64) 0.20
Deyo-Charlson index (5-point change) 1.28 (0.70, 2.33) 0.43 1.03 (0.48, 2.21) 0.93
Depression (reference no depression) 1.05 (0.55, 2.00) 0.88 1.91 (0.83, 4.41) 0.13
Anxiety (reference no anxiety) 3.05 (1.62, 5.72) 0.001a 3.98 (1.68, 9.43) 0.002a
  1. *Adjusted for American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, distance from the medical center, income, operative diagnosis and implant fixation in addition to all the variables in the table; aSignificant odds ratios and P-values; CI, confidence interval. Goodness of fit statistic calculated as quasi likelihood ratio with lower value indicating a better fit: 2 years, 824.3; 5 years, 519.1.